SONNETS 101

  • Robert Gardiner
    1 year ago

    Http://www.thepoetsgarret.com/sonnet.html

    Brief History of the Sonnet Form

    Although the Italian sonnet is also labelled Petrarchan, as the English sonnet also bears the name of Shakespearian, nothing could be more erroneous. It was in fact created by Giacomo da Lentini, (1188-1240) head of thirteen other notaries who formed the Sicilian School of Court Poetry (14 total) and later the Neo-Sicilian School (1235-1294) when he moved to Tuscany. There he started writing in his own language which was Italian, and wrote almost 300 sonnets. Other members of this school included Dante Alighieri (1235-1321) and Guido Cavalcanti (1250-1300).

    The most famous user of this form was Francesco Petrarcha (1304-1374) whose sonnets became popular throughout Europe. Petrarcha actually revived a lagging form and gave it even more life.

    At this point it should be emphasised that the form had been deliberately created with 14 lines, whether it was because of the number of the school or a spiritual and mathematical formula of 8 and 6, is still being argued, but the fact is that it was a ratio of 8 and 6, a statement and volta or turning point, making a 14 line poem.

    The Spanish form follows the Italian form and is merely an Italian Octave with a Sicilian Sestet. The French also liked the Italian octave, but decided they would make the volta more explosive and made it a couplet with a following a quatrain and a similar pattern to the previously used quatrain, thus making it a definite change rather than casual one or ignoring a change completely, whilst still maintaining the 8/6 ratio.

    During his ambassadorial travels through the courts of France, Spain and Italy, Sir Thomas Wyatt (1503 - 1542) was without doubt, privy to the sonnets that abounded there and later it is alleged that his sonnet "Whoso list to hunt" was about having to give up his love for Anne Boleyn and was based around Petrarch's Rhyme 190. He is credited with introducing the English sonnet form and translating some of Petrarch's poetry. He was also an admirer of Chaucer innovative languages, but it took 15 years after his death before any of his work was published. Looking at some of his work, a true Petrarchan can be seen originally, however with his later work a deviation becomes apparent where he still follows the Italian octave, but the volta uses a quatrain using the same rhyme scheme and a couplet. It can be hypothesised that the next step was using three quatrains and a couplet, and called the English Sonnet, being English they would ignore the reasons for 8/6.

    Up to this point no meter was stated but it was natural the English of the time to use a form we now know as Iambic Pentameter, that had been created by Chaucer.

    Geoffrey Chaucer - Linguistic. Chaucer wrote in continental accentual-syllabic metre, a style which had developed since around the twelfth century as an alternative to the alliterative Anglo-Saxon metre. (Court Poetry). Chaucer is known for metrical innovation, (writing in English) inventing the Rime Royal, and he was one of the first English poets to use the five-stress line, the iambic pentameter, in his work, with only a few anonymous short works using it before him. His most famous use was in the Canterbury Tales.

    Edmund Spenser's sonnet is based on the Petrarchan sonnet and still follows the 8/6 pattern, however whilst following the conclusion idea it does so by use of a quatrain and a couplet which had finally been adopted by English poets.

    The form still evolving, William Shakespeare, like many of his contemporaries, wrote poetry and drama in iambic pentameter. There is some debate over whether works such as Shakespeare's were originally performed with the rhythm prominent, or whether it was embedded in the patterns of normal speech as is common today. In either case, when read aloud, such verse naturally follows a beat.

    Quick Guide to Conventional Forms
    (for more information click on the form)

    Italian Sonnet
    Petrarchan Italian Octave,, a.b.b.a.a.b.b.a
    Italian Seste,, c.d.e.c.d.e.
    Pre-Iambic Pentameter
    Sicilian Sonnet Sicilian Octave.. a. b. a. b. b a. b. a. b
    Sicilian Sestet.. c. d. c. d. c. d.
    Pre-Iambic Pentameter
    Italian Sonnet
    Sonetto Rispetto Ottava Rima Octave.. a. b. a. b. a. b. c. c.
    Italian Sestet.. d. e. f. d. e. f.
    Sicilian Sestet.. d. e. d. e. d. e.
    Pre-Iambic Pentameter
    French Sonnet Italian Octave, Sestet begins.. c. c. then..
    d. c. c. d. .or. d. e. e. d. . or. d. e. d. e.
    Eight syllable meter
    Spanish Sonnet Italian Octave.. a. b. b. a. . a. b. b. a
    Rima Alterata.. c. d. c. d. c. d.
    Ten syllable meter
    Rime Royal Sonnet

    .. a. b. a. b. b. c. c. . . d. e. d. e. e. f. f.

    No Meter Specified
    Wyatt Sonnet .. a. b. b. a. . a. c. c. a. . d. e. e. d. f. f.

    Any meter
    Spenserian Sonnet a. b. a. b. . b. c. b. c. . c. d. c. d. . e. e.

    Pre-Iambic Pentameter
    English Sonnet
    (Shakespearian) a. b. a. b. . c. d. c. d. . e. f. e. f. . g .g.

    Iambic Pentameter

    Complex Variations

    Additions of Lines,
    Stanza or Sonnets
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    Famous Poets Forms
    (for more information click on the form)

    Burns Sonnet .. a. b. a. b. . c. d. d. c. . . . e. f. f. e. . g. g

    Definately nae Iambic ye ken
    Byron Sonnet .. a.b. b. a. . a. c. c. a. . . . d. e. d. . e. d. e

    No Meter Specified
    Keats Sonnet .. a. b. c. . a. b. d. . c. a. b. . c. d. e. . d. e.

    No Meter Specified
    Pushkin Sonnet .. a. b. a. b. . c. c. d. d. . e. f. f. e. . g. g.

    No Meter Specified
    Shelley Sonnet .. a. b. a. b. a. c. d. c. . . e. d. e. f. e. f.

    No Meter Specified
    Tennyson Sonnet .. a1. b. a2. b. c. d. d. c. e. f. e. a2. a1. f. e.

    No Meter Specified
    Wordsworth Sonnet .. a. b. b. a. . a. b. b. a. . c. d. c. d. . e. e.

    No Meter Specified
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    National Sonnets
    (for more information click on the form)

    Arabian Sonnet

    .. a. a. a. a. . b. b. b. b. . c. c. c. . d. d. d.

    No Meter Specified
    Australian Sonnet

    .. a. b. b. a. . . c. d. d. c. . . e. f. f. e. . . g. g.

    No Meter Specified
    Dutch Sonnet

    .. a. b. c. c. b. a. . .d . d. . . e. x. e. f. x. f.

    No Meter Specified
    German Sonnet

    .. a. b. b. a. . .b. c. c. .b . . . c. d. d. . . c. d. d.

    No Meter Specified
    Irish Sonnet

    .. a. b. a. b. . . b. c. b. c. . . c. d. c. d. . . d. d.

    No Meter Specified
    Korean Sonnet

    .. a. a. a. a. a. a. a....b. b. b. b. b. b. b.

    No Meter Specified
    Malaysian Sonnet

    .. a. a. b. a. . . b. b. c. b. . . c. c. d. c. . . d. d.

    No Meter Specified
    New Zealand Sonnet

    .. a. b. a. b. . . b. b. c. c. . . c. d. c. d. . . e. e.

    No Meter Specified
    Trinidad Sonnet

    .. A. b. a. . c. b. c. . D. e. d. . . f. e. f. . . A. D.

    No Meter Specified
    Vietnamese Sonnet
    (Luc Bat)

    .. a. (a. x. b). b. (b. x. c). c. (c. x. d). d. .
    (d. x. e).e. (e. x. f). f. (f. x. g). g. (g. x. a)
    Alternate 6. 8. Sound units
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    Controversial Sonnet Forms (Quatorzain)
    (for more information click on the form)

    Alfred Dorn Sonnet

    .. a. b. c. a. b. c. . . d. d. . . a. e. a. e. a. e.

    No Meter Specified
    Beymorlin Sonnet English or Italian basic, Second sylable of each line has an internal rhyme scheme
    Ten syllables or Iambic Pentameter
    Blank Verse No rhyme pattern

    Iambic Pentameter
    Blues Sonnet

    A. A. a. . . B. B. b. . . C. C. c. . . D. D. d. . e. e.
    Iambic Pentameter
    Or..Do yo thang
    Brisbane Sonnet

    .. a. b. c. a. . . b. c. d. e. . . f. d. e. f. . . g. g.

    Iambic Pentameter or Similar
    Busta Sonetto

    .. a. b. x. b. a. . . c. d. x. d. c. . .e. f. f. e.

    Iambic Pentameter or Similar
    Cornish Sonnet

    .. a. b. a. c. b. C. . . d. e. d. f. e. F. . . C. F.
    Or.. a. b. a. c. b. C. . . D. e. d. f. e. F. . . C. D.
    Or.. A. b. a. c. b. c. . . D. e. d. f. e. f. . . A. D.
    Or.. A. b. a. c. b. c. . . d. e. d. f. e. F. . . A. F
    Curtal Sonnet

    .. a. b. c. a. b. c. . . d. c. b. d. c.
    Or. . a. b. c. a. b. c. . . d. b. c. d. c.
    last line spondee, or at least a tail shorter
    Cyhydedd Fer Sonnet

    .. a. a. b. b. . . c. c. d. d. . . e. e. f. f. . . g. g

    8 syllable lines
    Divino Sonetto .. a. a. b. b. . . d. c. c. d. . . e. e. f. . . e. g. g

    No Meter Specified
    Echo Sonnet

    .. A. b. b. A1. . . a. c. c. A1. . . a. d. d. A1. . . A.A1

    Iambic Pentameter or similar
    Envelope Sonnet

    .. a. b. c. c. b. a. . . d. d. . . e. f. g. g. f. e.

    No Meter Specified
    Free Form No rhyme pattern

    No meter
    Ghazal

    .. A. A. . . b. A. . . b. A. . . b. A. . . b. A. . . b. A

    No Meter Specified
    Ivorian

    .. A nine line start: a. a. b. c. b. d. e. d. e.
    Then a Quitain any variation of a. b. c. d. e.
    No Meter Specified
    John Tee

    .. A. B. c. d. e. f. A. B. g. h. i. j. A. B.

    No Meter Specified
    Kyrielle

    .. A. b. a. B. . . c. b. c. B. . . d. b. d. B. . . A. B.
    Or.,A.a.b.B...c.c.b.B...d.d.b.B...A.B.
    No Meter Specified
    Mabini

    a. b. b. a. . c. c. . a. a. . d. d. . a. e. e. a.

    10 syllables or Iambic Pentameter or similar.
    Mathlish

    .. a. a. . b. b. b. . . c. c. . . d. d. d. . . .
    Quatrains e. f. e. f. . or. e. f. f. e. . or. e. e. f. f.
    10 syllables or Iambic Pentameter or similar.
    Pantoum

    .. A. b1. a. b2. . b1. c1. b2. c2. . c1. a1. c2. A. . a1. A

    No Meter Specified
    Rime Royal Sonnet

    .. a. b. a. b. b. c. c. . .d. e. d. e. e. f. f.

    No Meter Specified
    Rondel Prime

    .. A. B. a. b. . . a. b. A. B. . . a. b. b. a. A. B
    Or.. A. B. a. b. . . a. b. A. B. . . a. b. a. b. A. B
    No Meter Specified
    Rosarian

    First Two Stanza ..a. a. b. c. c. . . d. d. b. e. e.
    Third stanza. . b. b. f. f.......or . f. f. g. g.
    . . . . . . . . . or. . f. g. f. g.......or . f. g. g. f
    Rubaiyat

    .. a. a. b. a. . . b. b. c. b. . . c. c. a. c. . . a. a.

    No Meter Specified
    Sapphic Ode

    3 x 4 lines, 3 Iambic Tetrameter, last line Iambic Dimeter. Couplet Iambic Tetrameter
    a. b. a. b. . .c. d. c. d. . .e. f. e. f. . .g. g.
    Saraband

    3. 4. 3. 4
    any variation of tercet with any quatrain
    No Meter Specified
    Sestina or Quastina

    .. a. b. c. d... d. c. a. b... b. a. d. c... c. b.. d. a.

    No Meter Specified
    Soneto Cinco, Cuatro y Cinco

    .. a. a. b. b. x... c. c. d. d... e. e. f. f. x. or
    .. x. a. a. b. d... c. c. d. d... x. e. e. f. f.
    No Meter Specified
    Swannet

    A1. b. b. A2. . . c. d. d. c. . . e. f. f. e. . . A1. A2.

    No Meter Specified
    Terza Rima Sonnet

    ... a. b. a. . . b. c. b. . . c. d. c. . . d. e. d. . . e. e.

    No Meter Specified
    Triolet Sonnet

    .. A. B. a. A. a. b. A. B. a. A. a. b. A. B.

    No Meter Specified
    Villanelle Sonnet

    A1. b. A2. a. b. A2. a. b. A1. a. b. A2. A1. A2.

    No Meter Specified
    Wreathed or
    Un-wreathed Sonnet

    (Un-)Wreath Octave and Sestet or
    3x (Un-)Wreath Quatrains and a Couplet

  • Everlasting
    1 year ago

    So many sonnets! Thanks for sharing.

  • Em
    1 year ago

    I need to write me a sonnet