NOTES ON WRITING POETRY-Part II

  • Grey Ajurahck
    10 years ago

    I noticed the Notes On Writing Poetry thread/topic for some reason was locked. Was hoping someone would continue on with that thread and the variety of topics it covers.

    Grey

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    Greetings P&Q Members,

    What I hope to do in this topic/forumn is cover a varietry of the aspects of poetry. From simple plain spoken advice/suggestions(the basics) to the more technical aspects like definitions of poetic terms/forms (for those wishing to learn more, to expand their horizons), markets and how/where to get published, etc.I am asking those all members to post things that could benefit others. Including such things as advice on certain forms, tips on breaking writer's block, recommended reading, and also personal writing habits (I've found people like to read about not only advice/suggestions but also the personal writing/working habits of different writers),like what time of day you write, do you have a favorite place(inside or outside, even more specific), do you listen to music while you write,when you first started writing,do you write rough drafts on the computer or with pen and paper,do you revise rough drafts or leave it as is,have you been published,what your influences were(other poets, writers, songwriters, etc.), is solitude necesary to you or not, what compels you to write,emotions, passion, to get an idea or meaning across, do you write for yourself or with someone in mind,how and when you started writing, writing as therapy or release,do you have a preferred form /style(sonnets, rhyme, free verse, haiku, etc.) and why, writing exercises, any other advice(personal or technical) and mostly what poetry means to you.Any advice to newcomers and established poets alike. I hope to hear/see postings from those popular and more experienced/knowledgable on the site as well as those newer members who have something to add. I welcome and appreciate any comments along these lines from any and all P&Q members-everyone has something to say.So if anyone can add anything at all along these lines, please do so. Also if you have posted any relevant articles or any topics pertaining to writing, I'd appreciate it if you could reprint them here (this would allow more exposure for you own topic and help this thread grow). Many of the topics I've noticed are repeated again and again and I feel it'd be nice to have all the information in one thread area. I feel it would very much benefit others, and we may just learn a bit about ourselves in the process.....

    Thank you.

    Gary Jurechka

    I had previously posted part I of NOTES ON WRITING POETRY, which was filled with almost every aspect of writing with contributions from not only myself but also lots of input from various P&Q members. I'd received many positive messages on that posting (NOTES ON WRITING POETRY), but due to it's length, the topic had to be locked. However it can still be accessed and read and I highly suggest you check it out for an idea of the type of subjects I'd like to continue in this thread, plus as I said there is a wealth of information that is very informative and beneficial. So due to many requests I've received, I am starting this thread and hope it is just as helpful and informative, so please feel free to comment/ add to this. Thanks again to everyone who made the original posting a success.
    The original NOTES ON WRITING POETRY can be accessed at:
    http://www.poems-and-quotes.com/discussion/topic.html?topic_id=56674

  • Grey Ajurahck
    10 years ago

    I've been writing for years, since childhood. I used to write mainly late at night (I'm a chronic insomniac), but lately it's been in the mornings or evenings. I usually use music more for background noise than anything else- usually instrumental stuff, jazz or new age, though sometimes rock. I find writing very therapuetic. I mainly write at home (I live alone, so the solitude is a plus). Sometimes I go to a large wooded park nearby, I have a special secluded spot and write at a picnic table.
    Mainly I write from the heart, I'm very emotional, so writing is like part confessional, part therapy, part just getting the emotions out that fill me so deeply. Though I write mostly free verse I have wrote some traditional forms just for the challenge and to broaden my writing skills. I always write rough drafts with pen and paper, never on the computer.
    I used to write for myself or for a loved one, but also have written some tribute pieces. In the 90's I had some stuff published in the small press literary magazines, but haven't submitted anything in years. I also write fiction, some short stories and some novels that I never seem to finish, lol, but it is poetry that is dearest to my heart. My influences are many-other writers, songwriters. I read a lot of poetry. Too many people like to write poetry but hardly read any, which I think is crucial and gives you a better understanding, thus improving your own poetry. Writing has just always been a passion and has gotten me through some rough times.

    Grey

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    Some poetic forms/terms and their definitions:

    (please excuse the mess-I still need to edit this a bit)
    ___________________________________________

    Retourne:
    A Retourne is a French poetry form wherein repetition is used, employed. It consist of four quatrains (four-line stanzas), with each line having eight syllables. The trick is though that the first stanza's second line must also be the second stanza's first line, the first stanza's third line is the third stanza's first, and the first stanza's fourth line is the fourth stanza's first.
    ___________________________________________

    Kyrielle
    A Kyrielle is a French form of rhyming poetry written in quatrains (a stanza consisting of 4 lines),
    and each quatrain contains a repeating line or phrase as a refrain (usually appearing as the last
    line of each stanza). Each line within the poem consists of only eight syllables. There is no limit
    to the amount of stanzas a Kyrielle may have, but three is considered the accepted minimum.

    Some popular rhyming schemes for a Kyrielle are: aabB, ccbB, ddbB, with B being the repeated
    line, or abaB, cbcB, dbdB.

    Mixing up the rhyme scheme is possible for an unusual pattern of: axaZ, bxbZ, cxcZ, dxdZ, etc.
    with Z being the repeated line.

    The rhyme pattern is completely up to the poet.

    ___________________________________________

    Kyrielle Sonnet is a 14 line poem, consisting of 3 rhyming quatrain stanza and a non-rhyming couplet. Each line within the Kyrielle Sonnet consists of only eight syllables. The Kyrielle Sonnet has a refrain normally, the last line of each stanza. Keeping with French tradition, linking the last line with the first line, the ending couplet is composed by putting the 1st line of the poem with the last line of the poem.

    Rhyme scheme: AbaB cbcB dbdB AB

    __________________________________________

    Cinquain:
    French origin, from the word 5. A five line stanza. First line is the title, second line describes the title, third line describes actions, fourth line describes feelings and the fifth line refers back to the title.

    The are two options to writing it:-

    Method one

    Line 1 - 1 word (Title)
    Line 2 - 2 word phrase
    Line 3 - 3 word phrase
    Line 4 - 4 word phrase
    Line 5 - 1 word

    or

    Method two

    Line 1 - 2 syllables (Title)
    Line 2 - 4 syllables
    Line 3 - 6 syllables
    Line 4 - 8 syllables
    Line 5 - 2 syllables

    _____________________________________

    Nonet:
    A nonet has nine lines. The first line has nine syllables, the second line eight syllables, the third line seven syllables, etc... until line nine that finishes with one syllable. It can be on any subject and rhyming is optional.

    ___________________________________________
    The Hay(na)ku Verse Form, a 21st century poetry form.

    History.

    Invented by poet Eileen Tabios, who is also publisher, Meritage Press.
    Officially inaugurated on the Web on June 12th, 2003 (Philippine Independence Day).
    The form spread through the Web to poets all over the world.
    Eileen Tabios initially called the form "the Pinoy Haiku".
    Vince Gotera proposed the name "hay(na)ku", and this name has stuck. This corresponds to a Tagalog phrase that means roughly "Oh!" or (in Spanish) "Madre m�­a".
    The last syllable is pronounced "ko" so maybe the final name will be even more independent of "hayku": "hay(na)ko".

    Example.

    Some of my favorites in the anthology are Dan Waber's:

    Nothing
    adds up.
    Love isn't math.

    and Craig Freeman's

    Moonshine
    And great
    Quantities of hills.

    Form.

    In a traditional Hay(na)ku, there are:

    A tercet: 3 lines.
    A total of 6 words: 1 in the first line, 2 in the second line, and 3 in the third line.
    There is no restriction on syllables or stressed or rhymes.

    Variations:

    In the 'reverse' haynaku, the longest line is placed first and the shortest last. The total is still 6 words: 3 in the first line, 2 in the second line, and 1 in the third line.
    Multiple hay(na)ku can be chained to form a longer poem.
    There are other variations also.

    _________________________________________

    The Concrete Poem Form

    History.
    Introduced in the 1950's, the term "Concrete Poem" now often includes what was historically called the "Pattern Poem" or (in the terminology of Kenneth Koch) a "Shape Poem."

    In a Pattern or Shape Poem, the shape of the poem on the page symbolizes the content of the poem.

    How to Read a Poem and Fall in Love with Poetry
    by Edward Hirsch,
    reports that "pattern poems have been found in Greek, Latin ..., Hebrew, Chinese, Sanskrit, ancient Persian, and in most modern European languages." The Pattern Poem shows a visual relationship of the form and the meaning.

    In the 1950's poets in Switzerland and Sweden and Brazil started, independently, to develop "Concrete Poetry" (partly as an adaptation of "concrete painting", a minor European school of the 1940's). In such poems, the arrangement of words and phrases on the page indicated the poem's meaning.

    Poets who have made such mergers of appearance and content include George Herbert, Lewis Carrol (pen name of Charles L. Dodgson), Ezra Pound, Guillaume Apollinaire, and Stephane Mallarm�©.

    Form.

    In a Concrete Poem, form follows function. The poem's visual form reveals its content and is integral to it. These are the features of such a poem:

    If you remove the form of the poem, you weaken the poem.
    In some (though not all) Concrete Poems, the form contains so much significant meaning of the poem that, if you remove the form of the poem, you destroy the poem.
    The arrangement of letters and words creates an image that offers the meaning visually.
    The white space of the page can be a significant part of the poem.
    Such poems can include a combination of lexical and pictorial elements.
    The physical arrangement in a Concrete Poem can provide a cohesion that the actual words lack. This allows a poem to ignore standard syntax, and logical sequencing.
    While such poetry is predominantly experienced as visual poetry, some concrete poetry is sound poetry. In general, concrete poetry attempts to give its audience the more immediate experience of art that is achieved by viewers of art or hearers of music.
    The attractiveness and robustness of the term "Concrete" means that modern poems that would previously have been called "Pattern Poems" are now called "Concrete Poems."
    ________________________________________

    Rictameter:
    A rictameter is a nine line poetry form. The 1st and the last lines are the same and the syllable count is as follows: -

    Line 1 - 2 syllables - same as line 9
    Line 2 - 4 syllables
    Line 3 - 6 syllables
    Line 4 - 8 syllables
    Line 5 - 10 syllables
    Line 6 - 8 syllables
    Line 7 - 6 syllables
    Line 8 - 4 syllables
    Line 9 - 2 syllables - same as line 1

    _________________________________________

    Etheree
    The poetry form, Etheree, consists of 10 lines of 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 syllables. Etheree can
    also be reversed and written 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1. Get creative and write an Etheree with
    more than one verse, but follow suit with an inverted syllable count.

    Reversed Etheree: 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

    Double Etheree: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10, 9, 8, 7, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

    ...Triple Etheree, Quadruple Etheree, and so on!

    _________________________________________

    Triolet:
    French origin, a poem or stanza of eight lines in which the first line is repeated also in the fourth and seventh lines, as is the second repeated with the eighth line.

    Rhyme scheme: ABaAabAB, Capital letters representing the repeated lines.

    Each line consists of 8 syllables.

    ________________________________________

    Ghazal:
    A Ghazal is a poem that is made up like an odd numbered chain of couplets, where each couplet is
    an independent poem. It should be natural to put a comma at the end of the first line. The Ghazal
    has a refrain of one to three words that repeat, and an inline rhyme that preceedes the refrain.
    Lines 1 and 2, then every second line, has this refrain and inline rhyme The rhyming scheme is AA bA cA dA eA etc.

    Of Persian origin, poem comprising of couplets with a rhyme and a refrain: -

    1st couplet:

    _____________________rhyme A + refrain
    _____________________rhyme A + refrain

    2nd and successive couplets:

    ____________________________________
    _____________________rhyme A + refrain

    ________________________________________

    TERZA RIMA

    Terza rima is a fairly simple verse form developed in Italy. It contains an unlimited number of three-line stanzas (called "tercets") with the rhyming pattern aba bcb cdc ded efe... Each tercet's middle line gives the rhyme for the first and last lines of the next tercet. The last tercet's middle line provides the rhyme for a final stanza containing either a single line or a couplet.
    Although no specific line length is required, most terza rima poems in English are written in iambic pentameter.

    ________________________________________

    Pathya Vat

    The Pathya Vat is a Cambodian verse form, consisting of four lines, where lines two and three rhyme. When a poem consists of more than one stanza, the last line of the previous stanza rhymes with the second and third lines of the following one.

    (Type: strucyure, metrical requirement, rhyme scheme requirement, stanzaic
    Description: Tetra syllabic-lined quatrains where the second and third lines rhyme. If there is more than one quatrain, the rhyme is picked up from the fourth line on the previous stanza).

    schematic

    xxxx
    xxxa
    xxxa
    xxxb

    xxxx
    xxxb
    xxxb
    xxxc

    xxxx
    xxxc
    xxxc
    xxxd

    etc.

    ________________________________________

    Balassi:

    Origin is from Magyar attributed to Hungarian poet Balint Balassi (1554 - 1594), he was regarded as the first great lyricist of the Hungarian language. He wrote poems about religion, war and love.

    Each individual Balassi stanza is 9 lines in length and has a syllable count of 6-6-7-6-6-7-6-6-7, the rhyme for each stanza is bbaccadda.

    __________________________________________

    Villanelle:
    French poetry form. There are a total of 6 stanzas. The first 5 stanza comprise of 3 lines each. The last stanza comprises 4 lines.

    The 1st and 3rd line of the first stanza takes turns repeating as the final line in the following stanzas, and are then rejoined as the last 2 lines in the final stanza.

    The rhyme scheme is ABA throughout, except in the final stanza.

    _________________________________________

    Diamante
    A Diamante is a seven-lined contrast poem set up in a diamond shape. The first line begins with a
    noun/subject, and second line contains two adjectives that describe the beginning noun. The third line
    contains three words ending in -ing relating to the noun/subject. The forth line contains two words that
    describe the noun/subject and two that describe the closing synonym/antonym. If using an antonym for
    the ending, this is where the shift should occur. In the fifth line are three more -ing words describing
    the ending antonym/synonym, and the sixth are two more adjectives describing the ending
    antonym/synonym. The last line ends with the first noun's antonym or synonym.

    __________________________________________

    Huitain:
    A Spanish poetry form, it revolves around the number 8 - there are 8 lines to the poem, with 8 syllables per line. The rhyming scheme is ABABBCBC.

    __________________________________________

    Free Verse
    Free Verse is an irregular form of poetry in which the content free of traditional rules of versification,
    (freedom from fixed meter or rhyme).

    In moving from line to line, the poet's main consideration is where to insert line breaks. Some ways
    of doing this include breaking the line where there is a natural pause or at a point of suspense for the
    reader.

    __________________________________________

    Lilibonelle:
    4 stanzas of 4 lines per stanza.

    The first line on the first stanza is repeated as the last line of the last stanza.

    The 2nd line of the 1st stanza repeated as the 1st line of the 2nd stanza. 3rd line of 1st stanza repeated as 1st line of 3rd stanza. 4th line of 1st stanza repeated as 1st line of 4th stanza.

    _________________________________________
    The Ruba'yait Verse Form

    History.
    The Ruba'yait is a Persian form of several quatrains. Its name derives from the Arabic plural of the word for "quatrain," Rub�¡'�­yah. This, in turn, comes from the Arabic Rub�¡, meaning "four."

    Form.
    These are the attributes of the Ruba'ya¡t:

    This Persian form of poetry is a series of rhymed quatrains. In each quatrain, all lines rhyme except the third, leading to this pattern:

    a
    a - 2nd line rhymes with the first.
    b
    a - 4th line rhymes with the first and second.

    An "Interlocking RubÃ?¡iyÃ?¡t" is a Ruba'ya¡t where the subsequent stanza rhymes its 1st, 2nd, and 4th lines with the sound at the end of the 3rd line in the stanza (RubÃ?¡'Ã?­yah) before it. In this form, the 3rd line of the final stanza is also rhymed with the 3 rhymed lines in the first stanza.
    This leads to a form like this example with three stanzas; note that the Ruba'ya¡t" is allowed an unlimited number of stanzas, so extend the pattern as needed:

    a
    a - 2nd line rhymes with the first.
    b
    a - 4th line rhymes with the first and second.

    b - 1st line rhymes with the third in the previous stanza.
    b - 2nd line rhymes with the first.
    c
    b - 4th line rhymes with the first and second.

    c - 1st line rhymes with the third in the previous stanza.
    c - 2nd line rhymes with the first.
    a - 3rd line rhymes with the first in the opening stanza.
    c - 4th line rhymes with the first and second.

    The lines are accentual-syllabic, usually tetrameters or pentameters.

    Examples of Ruba'ya¡t.
    These are some of the favorite quatrains from the Ruba'ya¡t of Omar Khayyam translated by Edward Fitzgerald:

    Wake! For the Sun who scattered into flight
    The Stars before him from the Field of Night,
    Drives Night along with them from Heaven and Strikes
    The Sultan's Turret with a Shaft of Light.
    [Stanza 1]

    Come, fill the Cup, and in the fire of Spring
    The Winter garment of Repentance fling;
    The Bird of Time has but a little way
    To fly - and Lo! the Bird is on the Wing.
    [Stanza 7, 1st edition]

    A Book of Verses underneath the Bough,
    A Jug of Wine, a Loaf of Bread -- and Thou
    Beside me singing in the Wilderness --
    Oh, Wilderness were Paradise enow!
    [Stanza 12]

    The Moving Finger writes; and having writ,
    Moves on: nor all your Piety nor Wit
    Shall lure it back to cancel half a Line,
    Nor all your Tears wash out a Word of it.
    [Stanza 71]

    Some poems that have been written in English have the form of the Ruba'ya¡t, or a close approximation. An example is Robert's Frost Stopping By Woods on a Snowy Evening, which begins:

    Whose woods these are I think I know.
    His house is in the village though;
    He will not see me stopping here
    To watch his woods fill up with snow.

    Ezra Pound composed a Rub�¡iy�¡t that he included on the last page of his Canto LXXX (p. 516 in the New Directions edition of The Cantos); it begins:

    Tudor indeed is gone and every rose,
    Blood-red, blanch-white that in the sunset glows
    Cries: "Blood, Blood, Blood!" against the gothic stone
    Of England, as the Howard or Boleyn knows.

    Here are some steps to take in creating a Rub�¡iy�¡t:

    Read Fitzgerald's Fitzgerald's Rub�¡iy�¡t a dozen times.

    For your first Ruba'ya¡t, begin with a short story that you know, perhaps a traditional tale from your family or your culture.

    List at least a dozen words that are key to the story.

    For each of these words, list half a dozen or more words that rhyme.

    Now construct one stanza using a set of these rhymed words. The pattern possibilities of the rhyming will give you ideas for lines that you would never have thought of otherwise. Continue till done. Be patient. You are weaving an interesting tapestry.

    __________________________________________

    Palindrome:
    A word, phrase, verse, sentence or poem that reads the same forwards and backwards.

    __________________________________________
    Cazone- composed of 5 stanzas and a coda. Each stanza having 12 lines which use the same repeated end words in the following sequence: A). 1-2-1-1-3-1-1-4-4-1-5-5- B). 5-1-5-5-2-5-5-3-3-5-4-4 C). 4-5-4-4-1-4-4-2-2-4-3-3 D). 3-4-3-3-5-3-3-5-3-3-1-1-3-2-2 E). 2-3-2-2-4-2--2-5--5-2-1-1. The coda must use a 1-5-4-3-2 sequence.

    ________________________________

    Rannaicheacht Ghairid:
    An Irish poetic form, is a quatrain stanza of uneven lines. The 1st line has 3 syllables and the other 3 have 7 syllables. Each stanza has a rhyme scheme of aaba, with a cross rhyme between the 3rd and 4th line of each stanza -

    xxa
    xxxxxxa
    xxxxxxb
    xxbxxxa

    __________________________________________

    Monotetra:
    A poem written in quatrains, with each stanza mono-rhymed. The fourth line of each stanza must be repeated (dimeter phrase) The poem thus has a song like quality.

    _________________________________________

    Doditsu:
    The Doditsu is a fixed folk song form of Japanese origin and often portrays love or humor as subject matter.

    It comprises 26 syllables made up of four lines of 7-7-7-5 syllables respectively. It usually does not rhyme.

    _________________________________________

    Eintou:
    African American style poetry.
    Line 1 - 2 syllables
    Line 2 - 4 syllables
    Line 3 - 6 syllables
    Line 4 - 8 syllables
    Line 5 - 6 syllables
    Line 6 - 4 syllables
    Line 7 - 2 syllables

    _________________________________________

    Katauta:
    Japanese style poem of 3 lines with a syllable count of 5-7-7.

    ________________________________________

    Sedoka:
    Of Japanese origin, unrhymed poem made up of two three lined katauta with a syllable count of 5-7-7, 5-7-7.

    _________________________________________

    Rhyme Royal:

    Poem consisting of 7 lines with 10 syllables per line. The rhyme scheme is ababbcc.

    __________________________________________

    Sestina
    The sestina is a strict ordered form of poetry, dating back to twelfth century French troubadours. It
    consists of six six-line (sestets) stanzas followed by a three-line envoy. Rather than use a rhyme
    scheme, the six ending words of the first stanza are repeated as the ending words of the other five
    stanzas in a set pattern. The envoy uses two of the ending words per line, again in a set pattern.

    First stanza, ..1 ..2 ..3 ..4 ..5 ..6
    Second stanza, ..6 ..1 ..5 .. 2 ..4 ..3
    Third stanza, ..3 ..6 ..4 ..1 ..2 ..5
    Fourth stanza, ..5 ..3 ..2 ..6 ..1 ..4
    Fifth stanza, ..4 ..5 ..1 ..3 ..6 ..2
    Sixth stanza, ..2 ..4 ..6 ..5 ..3 ..1

    Concluding tercet:
    middle of first line ..2, end of first line ..5
    middle of second line ..4, end of second line..3
    middle if third line ..6, end of third line ..1

    ______________________________________

    Choka:

    Is a Japanese poetry form, a long poem. The Choka deals with humanistic topics involving relationships. Each stanza is 3 lines in length and there is a syllable requirement.

    The choices for the structure are: -

    First stanzas comprising 5-7-7, 5-7-7 syllables etc., second 5-7-5, 5-7-5 syllables etc.

    or

    As a third choice, the pattern may alternate throughout the poem's length. For example 5-7-5, 5-7-7, 5-7-5 etc. or 5-7-7, 5-7-5, 5-7-7 and so on.

    __________________________________________

    Lira:
    5 line Spanish poetry form with syllable counts of 7-11-7-7-11 and a rhyme scheme of ababb.

    _________________________________________

    Cameo:
    A cameo is purely a syllabic poetry form, 6 lines and the syllable count is 2-5-8-3-8-7-2.

    ________________________________________

    Shadorma:
    A Spanish poetry form of 6 unrhymed lines. It is a syllabic poem. You may have as many stanzas as you like. The syllable count is as follows: -

    Syllables for each Stanza -
    Line 1: 3 syllables
    Line 2 : 5 Syllables
    Line 3 : 3 Syllables
    Line 4 : 3 Syllables
    Line 5 : 7 Syllables
    Line 6 : 5 syllables

    ________________________________________

    Tetractys
    Tetractys, consists of at least 5 lines of 1, 2, 3, 4, 10
    syllables (total of 20). Tetractys can be written with more than one verse, but must follow suit
    with an inverted syllable count. Tetractys can also be reversed and written 10, 4, 3, 2, 1.

    Double Tetractys: 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 10, 4, 3, 2, 1

    Triple Tetractys: 1, 2, 3, 4, 10, 10, 4, 3, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 10

    5 lines, syllable count: -

    line 1 - 1 syllable
    line 2 - 2 syllables
    line 3 - 3 syllables
    line 4 - 4 syllables
    line 5 - 10 syllables

    ________________________________________

    Than Bauk:
    A short poem of Burmese Origin. It consists of 3 lines with 4 syllables per line. The rhyme is the 4th syllable of the first line, the 3rd syllable of the 2nd line and the 2nd syllable of the 3rd line.

    ________________________________________

    Pleiades:
    Only one word allowed for the title, followed by a 7 line stanza. The first word in each line begins with the same letter as the title.

    __________________________________________

    Wayra:
    South American verse form with syllable counts of 5-7-7-6-8.

    ________________________________________
    Poetic Form: Found Poem

    Found poems take existing texts and refashion them, reorder them, and present them as poems. The literary equivalent of a collage, found poetry is often made from newspaper articles, street signs, graffiti, speeches, letters, or even other poems.

    A pure found poem consists exclusively of outside texts: the words of the poem remain as they were found, with few additions or omissions. Decisions of form, such as where to break a line, are left to the poet.

    Many poets have also chosen to incorporate snippets of found texts into larger poems, most significantly Ezra Pound. His Cantos includes letters written by presidents and popes, as well as an array of official documents from governments and banks. The Waste Land, by T. S. Eliot, uses many different texts, including Wagnerian opera, Shakespearian theater, and Greek mythology. Other poets who combined found elements with their poetry are William Carlos Williams, Charles Olson, and Louis Zukofsky.

    The found poem achieved prominence in the twentieth-century, sharing many traits with Pop Art, such as Andy Warhol's soup cans or Marcel Duchamp's bicycle wheels and urinals. The writer Annie Dillard has said that turning a text into a poem doubles that poem's context. "The original meaning remains intact," she writes, "but now it swings between two poles."

    Found Poem
    A poem created from prose found in a non-poetic context, such as advertising copy, brochures, newspapers, product labels, etc. The lines are arbitrarily rearranged into a form patterned on the rhythm and appearance of poetry.

    Found poetry is the rearrangement of words, phrases, and sometimes whole passages that are taken from other sources and reframed as poetry by changes in spacing and/or lines (and consequently meaning), or by altering the text by additions and/or deletions. The resulting poem can be defined as "treated" (changed in a profound and systematic manner) or "untreated" (conserving virtually the same order, syntax and meaning as in the original).

    The creation of found poetry requires the poet to draw upon not only mental creativity but his or her own unconscious attitude regarding the nature of language. Structurally, it can sometimes be similar to the process of composing a visual collage. Stylistically, it is similar to the visual art of "appropriation" in which two- and three-dimensional art is created from recycled items, giving ordinary/commercial things new meaning when put within a new context in unexpected combinations or juxtapositions. Appropriation art often plays upon a double-edged meaning, wherein the object's new artistic meaning makes a political or philosophical comment on its original purpose, and the same can be said for the way 'found poetry' can contain clever wordplay or evoke ironic contradictions in the way we use language.
    __________________________________

    Siju:
    Much older then Haiku and Tanka forms, it is of Korean origin evolving from even earlier Chinese patterns.

    3 lines comprising 14-16 syllables each, totaling between 44-46 syllables. A pause breaks each line approximately in the middle.

    ________________________________________

    Septet:
    In Latin = Septem. German origin, meaning 7 hence only 7 lines in length. A verse form that has a syllable count of:-

    line 1 - 3 syllables
    line 2 - 5 syllables
    line 3 - 7 syllables
    line 4 - 9 syllables
    line 5 - 7 syllables
    line 6 - 5 syllables
    line 7 - 3 syllables

    ________________________________________

    LUNE-a 3 line poem using a word count and not syllables(as opposed to the oriental forms). The word count is 3, 5, 3 (which makes the poem physically resemble it's name-the French word for moon).

    ________________________________________

    LANTERN (or Lanturne)
    The Lanturne is a five-line verse shaped like a Japanese lantern with a syllabic pattern of one,
    two, three, four, one.

    - a 5 line poem using a word count (again-not syllable count) of 1, 3, 5, 3, 1. Like the Lune, the form it takes on the page resembles the object it is named for.

    _________________________________________

    Ottava Rima
    A Ottava Rima is a poem written in 8-line octives. Each line is of a 10 or 11 syllable count in
    the following rhyme:

    one octive poem. abababcc
    two octive poem. abababcc, dededeff
    three octive poem. abababcc, dededeff, ghghghii

    ...so on and so on

    ________________________________________

    Rispetto
    A Rispetto, an Italian form of poetry, is a complete poem of two rhyme quatrains with strict meter.
    The meter is usually iambic tetrameter with a rhyme scheme of abab ccdd. A Heroic Rispetto is
    written in Iambic pentameter, usually featuring the same rhyme scheme.

    _________________________________________

    Lento
    A poetic form created by Lencio Dominic Rodrigues, the Lento is named after it's creator,
    taken from his first name Lencio and rhymed to Cento, an existing form of poetry.

    A Lento consists of two quatrains with a fixed rhyme scheme of abcb, defe as the second
    and forth lines of each stanza must rhyme. To take it a step further, but not required, try
    rhyming the first and third lines as well as the second and forth lines of each stanza in this
    rhyming pattern: abab, cdcd. The fun part of this poem is thrown in here as all the FIRST
    words of each verse should rhyme. There is no fixed syllable structure to the Lento, but
    keeping a good, flowing rhythm is recommended.

    For an added challenge, one may write a four-verse Lento and call it a Double Lento, or a
    six-versed Lento to become a Triple Lento.

    _________________________________________

    Haiku

    1) An unrhymed Japanese poem recording the essence of a moment. Nature is combined with human nature. It usually consists of three lines of 5/7/5 (5 kana in the first line, 7 kana in the second line, and 5 kana in the third line) totaling seventeen kana.

    2) A foreign adaptation of 1, usually written in three lines totaling 17 syllables or LESS.

    As you will notice, there are two definitions. Definition #1 is where many get confused. People tend to confuse kana or a single unit in the Japanese language with the English syllable.

    This is like comparing apples to oranges. Kana cannot be compared to syllables.

    Unless you are Japanese, have been writing Japanese, or speak fluent Japanese, you will be writing definition #2.

    The difference between the two is that in definition #2, you will be writing three lines of poetry, 17 syllables or LESS.

    This means you do not have to write three lines of 5/7/5 (5 syllables in the first line, 7 syllables in the second line, and 5 syllables in the third line). You may do so, if you can do it well without fluff words (many can't). If you write 5/7/5, that does not make your poem more of a haiku than someone who does not write 5/7/5.

    An ideal haiku should be short/long/short - but that depends on the haiku itself. There is nothing wrong with 5/7/5, if that is what you want to write. However, the majority of modern haiku in most of the journals are not 5/7/5. That doesn't mean that it doesn't have its place.

    However, it is all "haiku," not "haiku" and "other." It's just haiku. If you like, you can refer to 5/7/5 as "traditional" -- but even that is not entirely accurate, as it is quickly becoming more traditional to veer away from 5/7/5. The plural of haiku is also haiku, NOT haikus.

    After you have been writing and studying haiku for a while, you may be ready to break a rule. This is fine, if it is needed to improve the quality of an individual haiku.

    However, before breaking any haiku rule, you must learn and practice the rules.

    Then after you are more experienced, you can determine which rule, if any, you want to break on occasion.

    Break rules out of experience, not inexperience.

    __________________________________________

    Monorhyme
    A Monorhyme is a poem in which all the lines have the same end rhyme.

    _________________________________________

    Tanka

    An unrhymed Japanese poem consisting of five lines of 5/7/5/7/7 (5 kana in the first line, 7 kana in the second line, 5 kana in the third line, 7 kana in the fourth line, and 7 kana in the fifth line) totaling 31 kana.

    General thoughts on Tanka

    Tanka is generally written in two parts. The first three lines is one part, and the last two lines is the second part.

    Tanka in English is relatively new, so there are not as many guidelines as with haiku and senryu. You may include kigo (season words), but it is not necessary.

    One exercise for beginners is to write a haiku and add two more lines.

    However, tanka is not really a longer haiku, and should not be thought of as such. While tanka does use many of the same elements such as juxtaposition, concrete imagery, and is usually centered around nature, tanka is less constrictive.

    You may use metaphor, simile, and many of the other devices generally not used in haiku or senryu. You may show a more personal and emotional viewpoint.

    If tanka were seen in a book that contains only Japanese poetic forms, they would be easily recognizable. However, if the same poems were seen in a freestyle poetry book, they may be confused with any other five line poem.

    English tanka has not totally found its voice.

    Three ways to write tanka

    There are three basic ways to write tanka.

    1) Write 5 lines of 5/7/5/7/7. Just replace one syllable for one kana. Most English speaking writers do not do this, as there are too many vast differences between the Japanese and English language.

    You are certainly free to do this, however, your tanka will be about one-third longer than the Japanese tanka. There are some Japanese who think this is the only real way to write tanka, but there are others who feel that making English writers adhere to the form serves no purpose.

    2) Write 5 lines of 31 syllables or LESS, following the short/long/short/long/long form. This way, your tanka will achieve the same basic effect as the Japanese tanka.

    3) Write 5 lines of 31 syllables or LESS, letting the poem dictate the line length. You are free to experiment more with this last option.

    Everyone who writes tanka must make their own personal decision on which form they want to use. Some experiment with all three forms and find their own paths.

    ______________________________________

    Naani
    Naani is one of Indian's most popular Telugu poems. Naani means an expression of one and all.
    It consists of 4 lines, the total lines consists of 20 to 25 syllables. The poem is not bounded to
    a particular subject. Generally it depends upon human relations and current statements.

    ______________________________________

    Acrostic Poetry
    Acrostic Poetry is where the first letter of each line spells a word, usually (but not always) using the same
    words as in the title.
    _______________________--

    alliteration: the repetition at close intervals of the initial consonant sounds of accented syllables or important words (for example, map-moon, kill-code, preach- approve). Important words and accented syllables beginning with vowels may also be said to alliterate with each other inasmuch as they all have the same lack of an initial consonant sound (for example, "Inebriate of air am I")

    apostrophe: A figure of speech in which someone absent or dead or something nonhuman is addressed as if it were alive and present and could reply.example: "To an Athlete Dying Young" by A.E. Housman "The time you won your town the race,We chaired you through the market-place..."

    consonance: The repetition at close intervals of the final consonant sounds of accented syllables or important words (for example, "book-plaque-thicker")

    connotation: What a word suggests beyond its basic definition; a word's overtones of meaning. example: "The words childlike and childish both mean 'characteristic of a child,' but childlike suggests meekness, innocence, and wide-eyed wonder,..."

    denotation: The basic definition or dictionary meaning of a word.

    paradox: A statement or situation containing apparently contradictory or incompatible elements. example: "When Alexander Pope wrote that a literary critic of his time would 'damn with faint praise,' he was using a verbal paradox, for how can a man damn by praising?"

    irony: A situation, or a use of language, involving some kind of incongruity or discrepancy. Three kinds of irony are distinnguished in this book: verbal, dramatic, and irony of situation. example: "When Coleridge's Ancient Mariner finds himself in the middle of the ocean with 'Water, water, everywhere,' but not a 'drop to drink,' we call the situation ironic."

    synecdoche: A figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole. In the book it is subsumed under the term Metonymy. example: "redhead for a red-haired person, hands for manual workers, highbrow for the sophisticate, tongues for languages, ..."

    hyperbole (overstatement): A figure of speech in which exaggeration is used in the service of truth. example: "I'm starved!"

    meiosis (understatement): A figure of speech that consists of saying less than one means, or of saying what one means with less force than the occasion warrants. example: "If, for instance, upon sitting down to a loaded dinner plate, you say, 'This looks like a nice snack,' you are actually stating less than the truth..."

    litote: A figure of speech in which affirmative is expressed by the negation of the opposite. "This is no small problem" "I don't dislike you" "he's no dummy"

    pathetic fallacy: The attributing of human emotions and characteristics to nature: "The leonine old illustrator never let his
    pupils fall for the pathetic fallacy, that empty barrels are lonely."

    pastoral: adj. of shepherds or country life:a play, poem, or novel dealing with shepherds or country life. Such works as type or class: there are some things of an established nature in pastoral, which are essential to it, such as a country scene, innocence, simplicity...

    iambic pentameter: A basic measure of English poetry, five iambic feet in each line. Blank verse is in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Heroic verse is in rhymed orunrhymed iambic pentameter.

    meter (and variants): Regularized rhythm; an arrangement of language in which the accents occur at apparently equal intervals in time.

    rime (and variants): The repetition of the accented vowel sound and all succeeding sounds in important or importantly positioned words (for example, "old-cold,vane-reign, court-report, order-recorder"). The above definition applies to perfect rime and assumes that the accented vowel sounds involved are preceded by differing consonant sounds. If the preceding consonant sound is the same (for example, "manse-romance, style- stile"), or if there is no preceding consonant sound in either
    word (for example, "aisle-isle, alter-altar"), or if the same word is repeated in the riming position (for example, "hill-hill"), the words are called identical rimes. Both perfect rimes and identical rimes are to be distinguished from approximate rimes.

    sonnets (Shakespearean vs Italian): Shakespearean sonnet-A sonnet riming ababcdcdefefgg. Its content or structure ideally parallels the rime scheme, falling into three coordinate quatrains and a concluding couplet; but it is often structured, like the Italian sonnet, into octave and sestet, the principal break in thought coming at the end of the eighth line.

    Italian sonnet: A sonnet consisting of an octave riming abbaabba and of a sestet using any arrangement of two or three additional rimes, such as cdcdcd or cdede.

    enjambment: n. Prosody. the continuation of a sentence form one line or couplet into the next.

    caesura: Grammatical pause- A pause introduced into the reading of a line by a mark of punctuation. Grammatical pauses do not affect scansion.

    Rhetorical pause: A natural pause, unmarked by punctuation, introduced into the reading of a line by its phrasing or syntax. Rhetorical pauses do not affect scansion.

    scansion: n. the marking off of lines of poetry into feet; scanning. The marks for scasion are -or' for a long....etc.

    lyric poetry: poetry with a lyrical or song-like quality.

    epic poetry: a long poem that tells of the adventures of one or more great heroes; epopee. An epic is written in a dignified, majestic style, and often gives expression to the characters and ideals of a nation or race.

    metonymy: A figure of speech in which some significant aspect or detail of an experience is used to represent the whole experience. In this book the single term METONYMY is used for what are sometimes distinguished as two separate figures: SYNEDCOCHE (the use of the part for the whole) and METONYMY (the use of something closely related for the thing actually meant). 65-66

    epithet: n. a descriptive expression; a word or phrase expressing some quality or attribute. In "crafty Ulysses," "Richard the
    Lion-Hearted," and "Honest Abe,"the epithets are "crafty,"...

    archetype: n. the original model or pattern from which copies are made, or out of which later forms develop; prototype: That little engine is the archetype of huge modern locomotives.

    euphemism: n. the use of a mild or indirect expression instead of one that is harsh or unpleasantly direct. a word or expression used in this way. "pass away" is a common euphemism for "die."

    allegory: A narrative or description having a second meaning beneath the surface one. 88-89

    blank verse: Unrhymed iambic pentameter. 187

    free verse: Nonmetrical verse. Poetry written in free verse is arranged in lines, may be more or less rhythmical, but has no fixed metrical pattern or expectation. 186-87.

    analogy: n. a likeness in some ways between things that are otherwise unlike; similarity: There is an analogy between the human heart and a pump. SYN: resemblance, correspondence, equivalence....

    bucolic: Pastoral form of the middle ages.

    doggerel: Light verse; humorous, comic and scatological by nature, base, vulgar, crude (dirty)

    burlesque: n. a story, play, or essay, that treats a serious subject ridiculously, or a trivial story...

    villanelle: see p. 221 exercise 2 French fixed form.

    sonnet: Shakespearean-A sonnet riming ababcdcdefefgg. Its content or structure idally parallels the rime scheme, falling into three coordinate quatrains and a concluding couplet; but it is often structured, like the Italian sonnet, into octave and sestet, the
    principal break in thought coming at the end of the eighth line. 219-220(exercise 1)

    Petrarchan: A sonnet consisting of an octave riming abbaabba and of a sestet using any arrangement of two or three additional rimes, such as cdcdcd or cdecde. 218-19, 220 (exercise 1)

    aubade: A poem about dawn; a morning love song; or a poem about the parting of lovers at dawn. 52-301. Poem about love. "dawn song"-awakening-early European form (12 century)

    elegy: n. a mournful or melancholy poem, usually a lament for the dead. Milton's Lycidas and Shelly's Adonias are elegies. a poem written in elegiac verses

    ballad: A fairly short narrative poem written in a song like stanza form.

    Folk ballad-A narrative poem designed to be sung, composed by an anonymous author, and transmitted orally for years or generations before being written down. It has usually undergone modification through the process of oral transmission. 13-14

    haiku: A three-line poem, Japanese in origin, narrowly conceived of as a fixed form in which the lines contain respectively five, seven, and five syllables (in American practice this requirement is frequently dispensed with). Haiku are generally concerned with some aspect of nature and present a single image or two juxtaposed images without comment, relying on suggestion rather than on explicit statement to communicate their meaning. 223

    onomatopoeia: The use of words that supposedly mimic their meaning in their sound (for example, "boom, click, plop"). 198

    trope: n. the use of a word or phrase in a sense different from its ordinary meaning; use of a figure of speech. SYN: metonymy. a word or phrase so used; figure of speech; figurative language.

    webinstituteforteachers.org/~kchayes/2003/definitionspoetry.html
    _____________________________________________________________________________
    Enter your search terms Submit search form
    Web www.poeticbyway.com

    A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T UV W XYZ
    A

    ABECEDARIAN POEM (ay-bee-see-DARE-ee-un)
    An alphabetic acrostic poem; a poem having verses beginning with the successive letters of the alphabet.
    Sidelight: Although now often considered a learning exercise for children, abecedarii were associated with divinity in ancient cultures.

    (Compare Serpentine Verses)

    AB OVO (ab OH-voh)
    See under In Medias Res

    ACADÃ?MIE FRANÃ?AISE (a-ka-day-MEE frwah-SEHZ)
    See under Poet Laureate

    ACATALECTIC
    A term describing a line of verse which is metrically complete, i.e., not shortened by the omission of the ending syllable of the final foot. Acatalexis is the opposite of catalexis.
    (Compare Hypercatalectic)

    ACCENT
    The rhythmically significant stress in the articulation of words, giving some syllables more relative prominence than others. In words of two or more syllables, one syllable is almost invariably stressed more strongly than the other syllables. In words of one syllable, the degree of stress normally depends on their grammatical function; nouns, verbs, and adjectives are usually given more stress than articles or prepositions. The words in a line of poetry are usually arranged so the accents occur at regular intervals, with the meter defined by the placement of the accents within the foot. Accent should not be construed as emphasis.
    Sidelight: Two degrees of accent are natural to many multi-syllabic English words, designated as primary and secondary.
    Sidelight: When a syllable is accented, it tends to be raised in pitch and lengthened. Any or a combination of stress/pitch/length can be a metrical accent.
    Sidelight: A semantic shift in accent can alter meaning. In the statement, "give me the book," for example, the meaning can be altered depending on whether the word "me" or the word "book," receives the more prominent stress. In metrical verse, the meter might help determine the poet's intent, but not always.
    Sidelight: In English, when the full accent falls on a vowel, as in PO-tion, that vowel is called a long vowel; when it falls on an articulation or consonant, as in POR-tion, the preceding vowel is a short vowel. In the classical Greek and Latin quantitive verse, however, long and short vowels referred to duration, i.e., how long they were held in utterance.
    (See also Cadence, Ictus, Modulation, Rhythm, Sprung Rhythm, Wrenched Accent)
    (Compare Caesura, Slack)

    ACCENTUAL VERSE
    Verse in which the metrical system is based on the count or pattern of accented syllables, which establish the rhythm. The accents must be normal speech stresses rather than those suggested by the metrical pattern. The total number of syllables may vary.
    Sidelight: Most modern English poetry is a combination of accentual and syllabic verse.
    (Contrast Quantitive Verse)

    ACEPHALY (ay-SEF-uh-lee)
    The omission of a syllable at the beginning of a line of verse. Such a line is described as acephalous.
    Sidelight: An acephalous line might be an intentional variance by the poet or a matter of the scanning interpretation.

    (Compare Catalectic)
    (Contrast Anacrusis)

    ACROSTIC POEM
    A poem in which certain letters of the lines, usually the first letters, form a word or message relating to the subject. Of ancient origin, examples of acrostic poems date back as far as the 4th century.
    Sidelight: Strictly speaking, an acrostic uses the initial letters of the lines to form the word or message, as in the argument to Jonson's Volpone. If the medial letters are used, it is a mesostich; if the final letters, a telestich. The term acrostic, however, is commonly used for all three. When both the initial and final letters are used, it is called a double acrostic.
    (Compare Abecedarian Poem, Serpentine Verses)

    ADONIC
    A verse consisting of a dactyl followed by a spondee or trochee. It is believed to be so named because of its use in songs during the Adonia, an ancient festival in honor of Adonis.
    Sidelight: The festival of Adonia was celebrated by women, who spent two days alternating between lamentations and feasting.
    (See also Sapphic Verse)

    ADYNATON (uh-DYE-nuh-tahn)
    A type of hyperbole in which the exaggeration is magnified so greatly that it refers to an impossibility, e.g., "I'd walk a million miles for one of your smiles."
    Sidelight: An adynaton can also be expressed negatively: "Not all the water in Lake Superior could satisfy his thirst."

    AEOLIC ODE
    See Horatian Ode

    AFFLATUS (uh-FLAY-tus)
    A creative inspiration, as that of a poet; a divine imparting of knowledge, thus it is often called divine afflatus.
    (See also Helicon, Muse, Numen)

    ALBA
    See Aubade

    ALCAIC VERSE
    A Greek lyrical meter, said to be invented by Alcaeus, a lyric poet from about 600 BC. Written in tetrameter, the greater Alcaic consists of a spondee or iamb followed by an iamb plus a long syllable and two dactyls. The lesser Alcaic, also in tetrameter, consists of two dactylic feet followed by two iambic feet.
    Sidelight: Though seldom appearing in English poetry, Alcaic verse was used by Tennyson in his ode, Milton.
    ALEXANDRINE
    The standard line in French poetry, consisting of twelve syllables with a caesura after the sixth syllable. There are accents on the sixth and last syllables of the line, and usually a secondary stress within each half-line (hemistich). The English Alexandrine is written in iambic hexameter, thus containing twelve syllables in six metrical feet.
    Sidelight: The Alexandrine probably received its name from an old French romance, Alexandre le Grand, written about 1180, in which the measure was first used.
    Sidelight: The last line of the Spenserian stanza is an Alexandrine.
    (See Poulter's Measure)

    ALLEGORY
    A figurative illustration of truths or generalizations about human conduct or experience in a narrative or description by the use of symbolic fictional figures and actions which the reader can interpret as a resemblance to the subject's properties and circumstances.
    Sidelight: Though similar to both a series of symbols and an extended metaphor, the meaning of an allegory is more direct and less subject to ambiguity than a symbol; it is distinguishable from an extended metaphor in that the literal equivalent of an allegory's figurative comparison is not usually expressed.
    Sidelight: The term, allegoresis, means the interpretation of a work on the part of a reader; since, by definition, the interpretation of an allegory is an essential factor, the two terms function together in a complementary fashion.
    Sidelight: Probably the best-known allegory in English literature is Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene.
    (Compare Aphorism, Apologue, Didactic Poetry, Epigram, Fable, Gnome, Proverb)
    (See also Allusion, Metaphor, Personification)

    ALLITERATION
    Also called head rhyme or initial rhyme, the repetition of the initial sounds (usually consonants) of stressed syllables in neighboring words or at short intervals within a line or passage, usually at word beginnings, as in "wild and woolly," or the line from Shelley's "The Cloud":

    I bear light shade for the leaves when laid
    Sidelight: Alliteration has a gratifying effect on the sound, gives a reinforcement to stresses, and can also serve as a subtle connection or emphasis of key words in the line, but alliterated words should not "call attention" to themselves by strained usage.
    (See also Euphony, Modulation, Resonance)
    (Compare Assonance, Consonance, Rhyme, Sigmatism)

    ALLITERATIVE VERSE
    Poetry in which alliteration is a formal structural element in place of rhyme; it was prevalent in a number of old literatures prior to the 14th century, including Anglo-Saxon. In alliterative verse, the first half-line (hemistich) is united with the second half by alliterating stressed syllables; in the first half-line generally two (but sometimes three) syllables alliterate, while in the second half usually only one. Sometimes one alliterating sound is carried through successive lines:
    In a somer seson, whan softe was the sonne,
    I shoop me into shroudes as I a sheep were,
    In habite as an heremite unholy of werkes,
    Wente wide in this world wondres to here.

    --The Vision of Piers Plowman, by William Langland, 1330?-1400?
    Sidelight: To facilitate maintaining the alliterative pattern, poets made frequent use of a specialized vocabulary, consisting of many synonymous words seldom encountered outside of alliterative verse.
    Sidelight: By the 14th century, rhyme and meter displaced alliteration as a formal element, although alliterative verse continued to be written into the 16th century and alliteration retains an important function as one of a poet's sound devices.
    ALLUSION
    An implied or indirect reference to something assumed to be known, such as a historical event or personage, a well-known quotation from literature, or a famous work of art, such as Keats' allusion to Titian's painting of Bacchus in "Ode to a Nightingale."
    Sidelight: An allusion can be used by the poet as a means of imagery, since, like a symbol, it can suggest ideas by connotation. Like allegories and parodies, its effectiveness depends upon the reader's acquaintance with the reference alluded to.

    ALTAR POEM
    See Pattern Poetry

    ALTERNATE RHYME
    See Cross Rhyme

    AMBIGUITY
    Applied to words and expressions, the state of being doubtful or indistinct in meaning or capable of being understood in more than one way, in the context in which it is used.
    Sidelight: Ambiguity can result from careless or evasive choice of words which bewilder the reader, but its deliberate use is often intended to unify the different interpretations into an expanded enrichment of the meaning of the original expression.
    (See also Denotation, Paronomasia, Pun)
    (Compare Connotation)

    AMPHIBRACH (AM-fuh-brak)
    In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of a long or accented syllable between two short or unaccented syllables, as con-DI-tion or in-FECT-ed.

    AMPHIGOURI
    A verse composition which, while apparently coherent, contains no sense or meaning, as in Nephelidia, a poem written by A. C. Swinburne as a parody of his own alliterative-predominant style, which begins:
    From the depth of the dreamy decline of the dawn through a notable nimbus of nebulous noonshine,
    Pallid and pink as the palm of the flag-flower that flickers with fear of the flies as they float,
    (See also Macaronic Verse, Nonsense Poetry)

    AMPHIMACER (am-FIM-uh-suhr)
    See Cretic

    ANACHRONISM (uh-NAK-ruh-nizm)
    The placement of an event, person, or thing out of its proper chronological relationship, sometimes unintentional, but often deliberate as an exercise of poetic license.
    Sidelight: Anachronisms most frequently appear in imaginative portrayals with historical settings, such as a clock in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar, and a reference to billiards in Antony and Cleopatra.
    (Compare Hysteron Proteron, In Medias Res)

    ANACLASIS
    In classical poetry, the exchange of place between short and long syllables in Ionic feet to alter the rhythm.

    ANACREONTIC (uh-nah-kree-AHN-tik)
    A term describing odes written in the style of the Greek poet, Anacreon, convivial in tone or theme, relating to the praise of love and wine, as in Abraham Cowley's Anacreontiques.
    Sidelight: Francis Scott Key's 1814 poem, "The Star-Spangled Banner," was set to the tune of a popular song of the day, "To Anacreon in Heaven," composed by John Stafford Smith as a drinking song for London's Anacreontic Society. In 1931 it was officially adopted by the U.S. Congress as the national anthem.
    ANACRUSIS (an-a-KROO-sis)
    One or more unaccented syllables at the beginning of a line of verse that are regarded as preliminary to and not part of the metrical pattern.
    (See also Procephalic)
    (Compare Feminine Ending, Hypercatalectic)
    (Contrast Acephaly)

    ANADIPLOSIS (an-uh-duh-PLOH-sus)
    Also called epanadiplosis, the repetition of a prominent (usually the final) word of a phrase, clause, line, or stanza at the beginning of the next, often with extended or altered meaning, as in: "his hands were folded -- folded in prayer," or Keats' repetition of the word, "forlorn," linking the seventh and eighth stanzas of "Ode to a Nightingale."
    (Compare Anaphora, Chain Rhyme, Echo, Epistrophe, Epizeuxis,
    Incremental Repetition, Parallelism, Polysyndeton, Refrain, Stornello Verses)

    ANAGOGE or ANAGOGY (AN-uh-go-jee)
    The spiritual or mystical interpretation of a word or passage beyond the literal, allegorical, or moral sense.

    ANALECTS or ANALECTA
    Miscellaneous extracts collected from the works of authors.

    ANALOGY
    An agreement or similarity in some particulars between things otherwise different; sleep and death, for example, are analogous in that they both share a lack of animation and a recumbent posture.
    Sidelight: Prevalent in literature, the use of an analogy carries the inference that if things agree in some respects, it's likely that they will agree in others.
    (Compare Simile, Symbol)

    ANAPEST, ANAPESTIC
    A metrical foot with two short or unaccented syllables followed by a long or accented syllable, as in inter-VENE or for a WHILE. William Cowper's "Verses Supposed to be Written by Alexander Selkirk," is a poem in which anapestic feet are predominately used, as in the opening line:

    I am MON | -arch of ALL | I sur-VEY,

    Sidelight: In English poetry, with the exception of limericks, anapestic verse is seldom used for whole poems, but can often be highly effective as a variation.
    (See also Meter, Rhythm)

    ANAPHORA (uh-NAF-or-uh)
    Also called epanaphora, the repetition of the same word or expression at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses, sentences, or lines for rhetorical or poetic effect, as in Lincoln's "we cannot dedicate- we cannot consecrate-we cannot hallow this ground" or from Fitzgerald's The Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám:

    Sans Wine, sans Song, sans Singer, and--sans End!
    (See also Epistrophe, Symploce)
    (Compare Anadiplosis, Echo, Epizeuxis, Incremental Repetition,
    Parallelism, Polysyndeton, Refrain, Stornello Verses)

    ANASTROPHE (uh-NAS-truh-fee)
    A type of hyperbaton involving the inversion of the natural or usual syntactical order of a pair of words for rhetorical or poetic effect, as "hillocks green" for "green hillocks," or "high triumphs hold" for "hold high triumphs" in Milton's "L'Allegro," or from the same poem:
    Meadows trim, with daisies pied,
    Shallow brooks, and rivers wide;
    (Compare Antistrophe, Chiasmus, Hypallage)

    ANISOMETRIC
    See under Stanza

    ANTANACLASIS ( an-tuh-NAK-luh-sis)
    A figure of speech in which the same word is repeated in a different sense within a clause or line, e.g., "while we live, let us live."
    Sidelight: Since the play on senses can be used to create homonymous puns, antanaclasis is related to paronomasia.
    (See also Epanalepsis, Epizeuxis, Ploce, Polyptoton)

    ANTHIMERIA (AN-thih-MEER-ee-uh)
    See under Polyptoton

    ANTHOLOGY
    A collection of selected literary, artistic, or musical works or parts of works.
    (See also Canon, Companion Poem, Cycle, Lyric Sequence, Sonnet Sequence)

    ANTIBACCHIUS (AN-ti-ba-KEE-us)
    In classical poetry, a metrical foot consisting of two long syllables followed by a short syllable.

    ANTICLIMAX
    The intentional use of elevated language to descri

  • Nick who Plays Pool
    10 years ago

    Hello Gary, I received your message and decided to stop by again and share my knowledge with others. Recently I wrote a traditional poem and posted it, I found that even though traditional poems are harder to write and have much stricter schemes to them that they are also more satisfying to write. So I'll be talking about traditional poems, bear with me on my writing skills please.

    Traditional poems, forms of poetry that are left untouched in fear of their complexity. While it is true that traditional poems are harder to write, they are also much more enriching, rewarding.

    They include schemes to them; some may rhyme or be written in a certain mood like a happy mood, sad mood, or funny mood. Whatever the rules are, they're there for a reason. You may even notice a pattern in the poem as you write it, this will probably be part of the poem. Traditional poems will show a pattern in them, a song is a traditional poem actually and parts are repeated in it as to express the main theme of the poem/ song.

    I hope this mildly made sense; Im not a very good writer aside from poetry which I mentioned in the first paragraph. I just thought I would share my knowledge on behalf of Gary Jurechkas request and hope you enjoyed reading it and that I may have been able to psaud you to write a traditional poem.

    Peace, Power & Poetry,

    Nick

  • Joseph
    10 years ago

    Peotry comes from the art and cant really be taught

  • Ingrid de Klerck
    10 years ago

    Hi Gary and all the other P&Q members and a special hello to my young friend David,

    All of my poems are written from the heart. I write
    them at night when all is quiet. I write about people I know and about my feelings. I know very little about the technical side of writing, but I'm having a great time getting the message across!
    I think that as long as you are sincere, it is felt by the reader and your work will be appreciated....

  • Deana
    10 years ago

    Hi everyone,
    Thank you Gary for the kind words, I write strictly from the heart ,I really know nothing about the technical aspects of poetry although I am very anxious to learn.I read all of Garys comments because I can tell he is very knowledgable about the subject,The one thing I aim for in my poems is to be uninhibited in letting my emotions show through ,to expose myself to the reader,my hurt my pain, with the hope that they can relate and know that deep inside we are all a lot alike,and that we need each other, I have to be alone when I write ,I always write on paper first ,scribble thoughts ,rewrite , revise many times or sometimes the first thought is the best one. I plan to improve by learning more from this site and anywhere else I can get information.
    thanks again Gary

  • N J Thornton
    10 years ago

    Hey. As requested here are my three articles. Hope they'll be of some use.

    -----------------------------------------------------------

    Homophones - how to use them.

    Everyone wants to be better at writing, whether it be poetry, stories, or song lyrics. There are many subjects to consider when striving to write a great piece. There's one thing all writers have in common; they need to know how to use the English language. I have devised some effective tips to ensure you are using the correct words in the correct places.

    Homophones describe the words that sound the same but have different meanings. They can be a tricky business; I mean how do you know when to use which word? Some common mistakes occur with your and you're, there, their and they're, and hear and here.
    This is how to use some of those tricky homophones accurately.

    ALLOWED - refers to if you're able to do something with or without restriction e.g. "You're allowed a drink."
    ALOUD - this is where you can clearly hear a certain sound; it may be loud. It is the opposite of whispering or being quiet.

    BARE - is when someone or something is uncovered or naked e.g. "Bare feet."
    BEAR - this refers to the grizzly mammal often thought to roam caves.

    BOARD - is a hard sheet of thick card or wood. It can mean to enter or embark e.g. "Get on board," too.
    BORED - is when you have lost interest and become unable to concentrate on a particular thing any longer e.g. "I'm bored."

    BRAKE - refers to the slowing down of a vehicle such as a car, e.g. "Put on the brake to slow down the car."
    BREAK - to damage something often knocking it into smaller fragments e.g. "Oops I broke the vase."

    DEW - The tiny water drops often found on flowers in the morning.
    DUE - Time or amount that is owing or expected to happen e.g. "My homework is due in tomorrow."

    FLOUR - is the white power often used in cooking, or to avoid sticking when baking.
    FLOWER - is the plant with petals. Examples of flowers are roses and tulips.

    HEAR- refers to listening to something. Sound picked up by the ears, is what you can hear.
    HERE - refers to something being in this place e.g. "Over here."

    KNEW - this refers to previously knowing something, and being aware of the situation.
    NEW - is when something is fresh, and is often described as "brand new."

    KNIGHT - often a tall, handsome man in fairytales dressed in shiny, silver armor, who saves the princess from her distress.
    NIGHT - hours of darkness, when the moon and stars appear. Usually when we are sleeping and nocturnal animals wake. It is the opposite to day.

    PAIR- this is when you have two of something e.g. "a pair of socks."
    PEAR - this refers to the sweet fruit that is slender at the top, with a round bottom.

    PEACE - is a harmonious time with the absence of war and disagreement.
    PIECE - can be a portion, which has been separated from a larger one e.g. "A piece of cake." Alternatively, it can refer to a piece of work, such as a poem.

    RIGHT - is used when someone or something is correct. "Right" is the opposite of wrong.
    WRITE - is what we all love to do. We "write" poetry on this site. It is the use of language noted down in symbol form.

    SIGHT - is something visual, your eyes play a very important part in having sight e.g. "you're only just in sight."
    SITE - is the area of a built or potential structure. It can be used on the Internet to describe a web page, and is called a website.

    STAIRS - is one flight of steps or a series of steps, for example, a staircase.
    STARES - is looking at something or someone intently, it can make a person feel uncomfortable if one stares at he or she for a long time.

    THEIR - is a possession word. E.g. if a hat belongs to a person, you say it is "their hat."
    THERE- refers to something being in a particular place, e.g. "over there." It can be used to introduce a sentence too.
    THEY'RE - is short for "they are." A good way to understand when this should be used is to substitute "they're" for "they are" and see if it still makes sense. See "You're" for more information.

    TO - is going towards someone or something. "I'm going to the park" is an example of this.
    TOO - is used to say "also", "as well" and "in addition" e.g. "I love you too."
    TWO - is the number 2.

    WEAR - refers carrying or having clothes or a covering garment. Often refers to ones appearance.
    WHERE - refers to at or in what place. It's usually used at the beginning of a question e.g. "where are you?"

    WHICH - is used at the start of a question, and refers to a choice of options, e.g. "Which one?"
    WITCH - refers to the ladies who like to cast spells and in mythical tales ride around on broomsticks.

    YOU'RE - is short for you are. A good way to work out if you should use "youâ're" is to substitute it for the words "you are" and see if it still makes sense. If the answer is yes, you are welcome to change it back to "you're." However, if it does not you should use "your."
    YOUR - is used when it belongs to someone. If it's a possession of a person, whether it be an object or emotion, "your" should be used.

    I realize there are many, many more, but unfortunately I cannot fit them on here so I used the ones I feel are most common.
    This should be of use to most poets and writers if they have trouble fathoming which word should be used where.

    Hopefully, it will improve your writing skills and ensure all your work is completely legible and that it makes complete sense. No longer will you receive those critiques explaining, "This word should be used here instead of the current one." Because lets face it, it is slightly embarrassing and irritating when you have to keep editing a poem because of incorrect homophone use.

    Another good idea is to use a spell checker with every piece of work you write. If a piece of writing is presented poorly and there are several silly spelling mistakes, the reader may not take the poem seriously and not even complete the read. As a poet and writer, this is presumably not what you want, so remember to spell check.

    If there are still some homophones that you are unsure of, Internet sites should help. If you go onto a search engine such as google, and type "homophones," there should be some sites appear that can help you. If not go to dictionary.com (or look in a regular dictionary) and it will explain the meaning, from which you should be able to determine how to use the word. If you are still stuck with a word, I will be more than happy to help.

    Remember, don't be homophonbic, learn your homophones and use them well!

    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Writing Ides and Tips

    Some simple tips for writing can be a great help to get a poem started, or if you have the infamous "writers' block".

    So, here are some simple ideas and exercises to help you along if you're having problem finding the words.

    Find the Object

    If you're having trouble finding what to write about, try this. Pick an object in front of you, or something in view. It could be a mug, a table, an apple, look into a mirror at yourself, or a tree outside etc. Now think of ways to describe it. Think about it's uses, it's appearance, texture, size, things it reminds you of and anything else relevant. This can start a poem or ideas about a general object.

    Synonyms and Antonyms

    Take one of the descriptive words you have already chosen about your object, then think of synonyms of that word. Synonyms are different words that mean the same thing. For example some synonyms of love could be infatuation, adore, be devoted to, be fond of, and admire. The opposite of synonym is antonym. Some antonyms of love could be hate, loath, dislike, and detest.
    In your original idea lets say you first thought, "the apple looks juicy." By thinking of synonyms you could change that to "the apple appears succulent." You could then compare that to something else to emphasis the image. Antonyms can be used for contrast with other descriptions.

    Rhyming Ideas

    Now you need some rhyming words to add to your descriptions. Take any word or one from your ideas and think of words that rhyme. It doesn't have to be relevant, after all this is just an experiment. However, if you do find a word that is relevant, then weave it into your ideas. It is easier to take words with one syllable first, then move on to two, then three and so on. Soon you may have the foundation to a poem.

    Free Verse

    Poems needn't rhyme. If you do not feel comfortable enough to rhyme without it sounding forced then free verse may be for you,
    It allows you to write your ideas how you want, without having to worry about the ending sounds. Of course it still needs to flow, and the line breaks need to be thought through carefully, but iit can sometimes be much easier than rhyming.

    Putting the Ideas Together

    By now you should have a range of descriptions and rhyming words (if you chose that option) relating to your chosen object. You may even have a few lines strung together. It is up to you how you want to format your poem.

    Think about what else you want to say about this object and how to make one description flow onto the next. It could come to you within minutes or you may have to come back to it another time, weaving words does not come when you ask it to. It can some times be random and at anytime in the day.

    Here are some other tips to make sure you don't miss those bursts of inspiration for your next poem.

    1) Carry a note pad or jotter to note down those ideas.
    2) If you see something that intrigues you, note it down, it may come in handy later.
    3) When those creative words come into your mind, make a note of them because you never know when they may be the finishing touches to a future poem.
    4) If you feel intense emotions about a particular subject just write them all down, maybe until you can't write anymore then read them back and there maybe a potential poem glowing back at you.
    5) If you try to write and nothing seems to come to you, don't force the words out. Forget about it and come back to it later.
    6) You don't have to make it rhyme. The tip above for rhyming is only if you prefer to write rhyming poetry. If you prefer to write freely don't worry about the rhymes. Non-rhyming poetry is just as good as rhyming poetry, when they are both done properly.
    7) Don't expect to get it all right the first time. Poetry is about writing ideas first and then molding them into poems after. You may change words around, add, or subtract full lines or stanzas in a poem. If you let others read your work and give feedback, this can help you to know how the reader sees the poem. They may also spot mistakes you, the poet, didn't see. Asking others also lets you know your strengths too, and you should emphasis your work with those strengths.
    8) Write as often as you can. Take some time out occasionally, when you feel inspired and write. Writing a lot will help you to improve and with experience comes new skills. Try and concentrate on new ideas each time and think about subjects that matter to you. Issues close to the poet can often make stronger poetry.
    9) Don't just write, read. Reading other poet's work can give you ideas from your own and you can learn new techniques. If you see a certain poem with an interesting form or subject, or with an attractive use of language, try it yourself.
    10) If you write about the same subject more than once, try to use a different point of view. If talking about love you could write about a new couple, and a separation. Alternatively, with life poetry you could write about new life being born, or suffering in the world. Different points of view can appeal to more people.

    I hope this has been somewhat helpful, or even an interesting article to read.
    Those are just some tips that I've found work well for me. You may have your own that I haven't mentioned, and if you do, please don't be afraid to share.

    ------------------------------------------------------------

    Getting to grips with alternate diction.

    The penultimate question is, are you getting tired of using the same descriptions?
    Likewise, are you getting tired of reading the same descriptions?
    If the answer is yes, read on.

    In general, poets tend to stick to one or two genres when writing. This is because we find these subject areas comfortable for our style. In effect, we begin to use the same descriptions and images over and over. In turn they become comfortable and it's a cycle that�s hard to break.

    So I ask you to join me in breaking the cycle, and quitting the addiction of overused ideas.

    What poets can do -

    The next time you feel a "comfortable" poem brewing, jot it down in accordance, but refrain from posting right away. Instead, grab a thesaurus or go to thesaurus.com.
    In your poem, you may notice your usual description words, only this time you may want to look up a more creative way of expressing it. However, before you jump in with a random complex words ensure you know the meaning (a dictionary is great for this) and that it fits within the context of your poem.

    Furthermore, you may want to use concrete comparisons and metaphors instead of vague descriptions.
    So, "we grew apart" could become "our kisses became the nettles" And "I want to cry" could read as "my squint beckons the river."
    Please do not use these examples in your own poems, as they are copyright of Silver J.

    An extra hint is, if you're using a description and think, "I've read this before, so I�ll use it as I know it sounds good," that's a bad move. If you've read it before, it's probably been used many times before, thus isn't original. An honest reader should pick this out in a comment.

    A simple exercise you can do with a dictionary is to pick a letter or two and find random interesting words (it sounds odd, but it�s fun.) Then try to weave them into a new poem, but make sure you know the meaning and correct context in which it should be used. It should be an interesting piece, and it probably won't be the greatest gift to poetry, but it�s the start of getting into a new habit - using new words.

    It is easy to let your ego get in the way of receiving constructive criticism, however, this type of feedback is crucial if you want to improve. It indicates your strengths as well as weaknesses, which in turn enables you to become an "expandable" poet.

    What readers can do -

    Some "words" are unavoidable, though most aren't, and it is your job as the reader to inform the poet that alternative words could be used. You must be constrictive when offering criticism, stating what and how the problem could be improved, but at the same time ensuring the poet knows you're only expressing your opinion.
    It isn't necessary to provide examples as I did above, but a general idea of what the problem area is lacking would be beneficial for the poet. Don't forget to praise good use of description and imagery also!
    If a poem is unoriginal, and the reader doesn't state this, it's only inevitable that more poems of this nature will be posted and left to lay sweet.

    So, all in favour of expanding the diction of poets and readers on this site, say aye!

    Hope these articles were helpful. All can be found in the article section on this site.

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    Okay a little (lot) info on myself and my writing habits. Anyway, I'm not sure what advice I can offer, and by no means do I claim to know it all or be an expert, but I have had years of knowledge and experience and was popular and extensively published in the small press literary magazines(and have had 5 chapbooks published) as well as serving as editor/publisher of my own 'zine (actually two zines-the more literary/arts oriented 'THE WEB, A Journal Of Poetry And Art', and the more 'street' zine'THE ROLLING PAPER REVIEW') for five years. I've also done readings at Barnes & Nobles and other bookstores and coffeehouses (though I actually don't like reading my stuff to a group), also won a fe awards, certificates, etc.
    I'll try to touch on a few things. First-I love poetry because it is such a release,it is cathartic, a type of self therapy, it's really helped me through some rough times, saved my sanity, perhaps even my life. I started out writing short stories and fiction, then in my teens wrote song lyrics for our band that never really happened. As for poetry, it helped that I wrote for years without ever showing anyone my stuff or with any thoughts of publication-this allows total freedom and I built up a confidence and belief in my poetry that I didn't even have in myself. So believe in your writing, believe in yourself. I wish I had started earlier, but then things might have been different. My favorite saying is 'I write because I cannot NOT write'.

    Poetry is is an art, an expression of thought and emotion. It is yours and yours alone. There is no right or wrong.
    Don't let others tell you something is good or bad. Poetry is personal and no one but you can express what you feel, think and write.Even with no encouragement or support, keep writing.There are others who will appreciate and connect to what you write. It is a special feeling when your poetry can touch the hearts and minds of others, but even if you write only for yourself, it matters just as much.

    Personally, in my early years, I was totally unaware of the specific terms, techniques and mechanics of poety. I wrote what I felt, emotionally, naturally, with all my heart..Luckily I seemed to possess a natural rythmn and flow I wasn't even aware of. I think this freedom allowed me to write much better. Later I learned different forms and techniques and tried them. But I really believe it was my lack of knowledge that allowed me total freedom and the ability to write creatively without any restraints. It is always good to learn the other stuff later, but until then, be yourself and write what you feel. I do write mainly free verse.

    Sometimes it helps to have a certain time you write, my best time is usually the dead of night, it used to be the early mornings (when I worked third shift).So write whenever it seems to work best for you. Or write at any time you can(in my early years I would write every chance I got-5 minutes here, an hour there). Also it may help having a certain place.There's a spot at a wooded park I love to go to and write. At home, I never use my desk/study, I sit on the floor at my coffee table, papers spread out across it, back against the sofa.A lot of times I'll play music-sometimes rock or pop, a lot of time instrumental stuff, like smooth jazz or new age, usually just something in the background that I don't really pay attention to once I'm absorbed in writing. I used to write with the tv on-Nick-At-Night-when nickelodeon showed all the old sitcoms all night-Patty Duke, Mary Tyler Moore show, Leave it To Beaver, Taxi, Night Court, Wings, Dobie Gillis-again, I didn't really watch it, just something in the background.

    Also, keep a journal. I have off and on since I was 12, but I threw the early ones out because they embarrassed me, now I wish I had them. Journals/diaries are a good outlet, plus they can be used to jot down ideas for poems or stories, or came back to years later for material.I have a few months from 1986 when I was 22, and a few months from 89-90 when I was about 25,and some other stuff over the years. I read it now and it shows me where I was then, how much I've changed, and it also reminds me of things I'd forgotten, simple truths or thoughts I had written when younger, kind of like talking with myself, the self I was and who I am now.I was never real consistent at keeping a journal, I'd do it for awhile, then not do it for a few years, but I have some pages/notebooks from off and on over the last 20 years, and glad I learned not to throw them out!

    Another good habit is to keep a pen and pad of paper by your bed to jot down any thoughts you may have if you awake during the night, or to jot down dreams or dream fragments, which can also be a good source of material. In fact, since I was a teen-ager I've never went anywhere without a pen and small pocket-sized notebook.It's easy to say 'I'll write this down later'-but often the thought slips away and is forgotten, write it down immediately, while it's fresh in your mind.

    I always write my rough drafts with pen and paper, this allows a lot of freedom in many ways-flow, having something tangible to use, usually I'll rewite/revise it many times this way (it seems everytime a write a new draft I change things, making it a better poem-it also leaves you free to jot down notes or ideas for changes off to the side. Sometimes I'll write a bunch of stanzas not in the right order and then I can number them and redraft it in the order I want, also it allows you to cross out lines/words and still have them there (perhaps to decide to use after all or to use in another poem, rather than delete it if I wrote on the computer). It just seems more natural (at least for me) to write with pen and paper and type up the final version when the poem is finished).Some work better using a typewriter, and still others write directly on computer. Find whatever is most comfortable and works best for you.

    If you submit a poem to an e-zine or even the paper published one, never take the rejection of a poem personally.It might be the editor doesn't like that style or content, but there may be another one who does, so keep trying. It might be the zine is overstocked. There are many reasons. A rejection doesn't mean the poem is bad, just might not be right for that particular publication or any number of other reasons. Don't get discouraged. Remember, you are writing for you (to get out the emotion, to express something, whatever the reason), anything else(like publication) is a bonus.And like I said, if you keep at it, your work gets better(some of my early stuff I thought was so great and then a few years later I realize "this sucks!", 'how could I have ever thought this was good?'But you never know-some of the stuff I've posted on the P & Q site I didn't think was that good, and some of those have surprised me with the positive response they get).Although sometimes you will write poems that just don't work, that are honestly not that good(or truly bad)-but don't despair, sometimes you have to write a few bad ones to get to the good ones(I'd say for every good one I've wrote there are at least 5 really terrible ones) but the more you write the better you get, sometimes it is even necesssary to write bad poems to grow as a poet and improve your skills.Don't get frustrated or discouraged, don't give up, just keep writing and writing....

    Eventually you become your own editor-which can be difficult, but trust your instincts to tell you what to cut or what to add to make the poem better.After writing a piece, step back and read it again, review it with a critical attitude, like it isn't your poem.Sometimes the distance helps you see what needs to be changed.

    After you write a poem, let it breathe.By this I mean don't rush to post or submit it or think it's done (I found recently in recopying some of my poems I've totally changed or revised ones that I wrote over ten years ago and had thought were finished, many have even been published before in their original form)-very few poets write a perfect poem first draft. Write it, then set it aside for a few days, even weeks. Come back to it now and then, and rewrite it. You'd be surprised what changes you can see to make it better.Revising/rewriting however many times is sometimes essential.You learn to be your own editor and critic after awhile.I've had poems where I might only change one or two words, where it still is pretty much how I first wrote it, and I've had ones where I changed so much the final version looked nothing like the original draft (the poem Lucius I wrote was originally 2 and a half pages-I trashed everything but the last five lines). Don't think your words are set in stone, you are always free to change things, sometimes it's hard, like say you have to cut a line you really like because it just don't seem to work. Do it. But save the line.Save everything, scraps of images or verse can be used in other poems. Trust your inner instincts, but don't be afraid to change something(or to stick with something-I've had editors suggest changes when publishing some of my stuff, I always listen-then decide for myself. Sometimes the change is justified and I make it, sometimes it's like, 'this editor just don't get it' and I refuse. Always be open, but go with what you believe).
    Listen to advice from others and then decide what works or doesn't work for you.
    And remember, it is not what you say, but how you say it that makes it poetry. And always believe you have something to say.Everyone's opinions/thoughts/feelings are important.

    Sometimes it helps to read your poem aloud to yourself-see if it sounds right, if it has a good flow and don't sound awkward in spots.

    Instead of saying things outright, use images, metaphors, similies to express your thoughts and emotions.Though sometimes blunt, obvious, being straight out in thoughts and feelings in your words work, but sometimes it is the abstract/surreal/image that works best-being ambiguous allows the reader to interpret the poem in their own way.
    When reading over other people's poems-famous or ameteur, pay special attention to how they use images or unusual word combinations or phrases. Some find it easier to write in straight forward simple terms, which is fine, but a good image or unusual use of language (such as words you normally wouldn't associate as going together) can really make a piece stand out. Study poems, see what you think the author is saying. Study up on metaphors and similies. There's another good writing maxim-show don't tell, meaning use images or mood rather than blatantly hitting the reader over the head with the message. Avoid the cliche, especially in rhyming work(which is why I prefer the freedom of free verse, so much rhyming work is full of cliches or mundane words, it's hard to write a good rhyming piece but it can be done).Most beginners/amateurs start out with rhyme as it seems easier.There is nothing wrong with this, but it is hard to do well (without being cliche), but it can be done well.Still, try to branch out, grow, try different things.Check around on the net and learn about different forms of poetry.

    Often(in my own case) the poem dictates the form it is written in, and I go with that. Whether it is a rhyming piece or free verse, a single long piece or broken down into stanzas (the stanzas can be all the same length of broken apart where it seems natural or works best). A single line set apart can really give a piece impact, as can a repeating verse/line. Don't force the piece into a set form, let it be what it is.
    I try to challenge myself, try traditional forms/styles/techniques(rondels, Kyrielle,blank verse, doditsu, tanka, villanelles, acrostic, etherees,pantoums, haiku, chain verse, Balassi, sonnets, ghazal, alliteration, rondeaus, pleiades, triolets, metered verse, cinquains, etc). Try free verse, try experimental stuff, off the wall stuff, be surreal or abstract, etc.A lot of my stuff is like that-sometimes I'm not even sure what I'm saying, it seems to just come from the subconscious and many of my poems have an ambiguity that allows each reader to find their own meaning, or different meanings then others (kinda like how two people can view a painting or a film and each have different impressions). I jokingly say my style is having no style-but really I use so many different forms and styles, the poems, the thoughts, emotions coming out into words seems to dictate what form or style I use, start with what you are comfortable with, but always be open to try other things..Have fun with writing.Or use it to express yourself.That is how I started out, I wrote because I had to, I wrote for myself at first (and guess I still do).So write for yourself, with no inhibitions, no holding back, be brutally honest and emotional.Or if it works better for you to write for someone or with someone in mind reading your poem, do that. I, and others, can offer all the advice and suggestions under the sun, but eventually you will forge your own voice, your own style.Listen and use what works for you.

    Don't tackle the broad, grand themes-Life, Love, Death, God, etc. in a big way-use specifics.When I say this, I mean, yes, write about those subjects we all know and can relate to, but in a more intimate way rather than trying to explain the meaning of life or God or cover too broad and general an area.This I found is important and so true:
    Sometimes you'll find the more personal you are, the more universal your work is.
    -all people can relate to certain things.Though I write for myself, many of my poems are born of sadness, happiness, melancholia, pain, loss of love, being in love, depression, the ecstasy of feeling/being alive, things I think sometimes only have meaning to me, then someone will write and say, "I know what you mean" or have felt similiar or can relate in some way(again the more personal, sometimes the more universal it is).And I have read many poems by others that echo what I may feel.There is a lot of satisfaction(in many ways) when you can write something that touches the heart and mind of someone else(the reader).

    Some editors prefer very little use , if any of adjectives/adverbs.Some prefer one central image, more simple, straightforward styles.Personally I use an abundance of adjectives, sometimes getting very descriptive.Also I have been known to use many images in a single poem.I have been condemned by some editors/readers for this, and I have received praise from some editors/readers for this (most of my best, most published and well received poems are because of the barrage of adjectives/multiple images I use, just my style for the main part(especially in the more 'surreal/abstract' pieces)).I have always been a descriptive writer, trying to paint a vivid picture for the reader or drawn the reader in to the emotion or thought of the poem, my world.This is just my style in most pieces. To me this can strengthen the poem and add drama and impact. I know one poet who never uses adjectives or adverbs and his work is great. Neither way is right or wrong.Everyone developes their own voice, their own style of writing. One must find what works best for them or the poem.
    Learn to see 'the world behind things' (as I like to term it). By this I mean don't get so caught up in the problems and day to day survival, the friends, the family, the stress and trauma, the cares, worries, guilt, the things society and civilazation say are important.Let it all go for the moment. Truly be alive in that particular moment and feel everything with all your senses.Look at the stars, the moon, feel the wind, the beauty of a sunny day, the majesty of storms, flowers, rainbows. Feel, touch, taste, smell, hear-use these to make things true and real..Remember to see the things that most people take for granted everday and eventually don't even notice.

    Well, guess that's enough about me. Maybe too much!

    Peace, Poetry & Power,

    Gary Jurechka

  • Auspicious76
    10 years ago

    Gee Gary, I have to say..., I feel as if I'm back in writing school :-P

  • debbylyn
    10 years ago

    Awesome job Gary! This is such a helpful thread....for anyone who writes. Many good tips from everyone......

    I find myself wanting to break out of the rhyming poems....have tried to write a few free verse, but the rhymes seem to come more naturally. I've written mostly love poetry and sad poems, but have also tried funny and fantasy, even wrote about a paperweight!...it does good to try to break out of the mold. I would also suggest that those who wish to try something different look on the poetry contest board, sometimes there are some very challenging writing subjects there...i.e. Bob's Poe contest a while back.

    I also jot down words or lines at times, and in some strange places....post office (on a store receipt), grocery store, airport, etc....lol....my kids sometimes think I'm nuts...hmmmmm, but I find if I think of what I believe to be a good line, if I don't write it, I lose it.

    Thanks Gary and all who shared .....great thread!

    Debbie

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    Some further notes on poetry writing-basics/definitions-stanza units, line lengths.

    Stanza units

    monostiche-one line stanza
    couplet-two line stanza
    tercet- three line stanza
    quatrain- four line stanza
    cinquain- five line stanza
    sestet- six line stanza
    septet- seven line stanza
    octave- eight line stanza
    spenserian or 9 line- nine line stanza

    Line Lengths
    A 'foot' is defined as a unit of language with one accented syllable and one or more unaccented syllables.

    monometer- one foot
    dimeter- two feet
    trimeter- three feet
    tetrameter- four feet
    pentameter- five feet
    hexameter- six feet
    septameter- seven feet
    octameter- eight feet

    Metrical feet or units of rhythmn in any given part of line.

    iamb- ./-slack-stress
    trochee- /.- stress-slack
    anapest- ../- slack-slack-stress
    dactyl- /..-stress-slack-slack
    spondee-//-stress-stress

  • tara
    10 years ago

    Well i started poetery not that long ago.
    like two weeks ago.
    but when i write i like it to be very quite and really no music because i sometimes have a troule of keeping the english song and my own engelish get confused I just get distracted but thats because i'm not that good at english.
    and i actually don't keep to the rules.
    i don't no wich stile i write i just do it i think not everybody is possible too write poetry,
    because you need too see it and feel it.
    like some people are good in french and they say you can learn but alot of peolpe can't.
    so my advice is if you feel like writing then do it you can't feel like something if youre not good it.

  • Wake
    10 years ago

    WOW..that is like .. jst wat i ws looking for.. i wud like to thank you fr such a remarkable help .. so w00-h00 .. :D

    you dont knw wt this means .. thx again

  • IdTakeABulletForYou
    10 years ago

    Once again, upon request.

    How To Get Through A Writer's Block

    To many people, literature in general is a large part of their life. I know
    that poetry, to me, is as functional in my body is my legs are... it is just
    another limb. To go through a writer's block is as if someone amputated some
    physical aspect of you... except in this case it is an emotional aspect of
    your body. Writer's block not only affects the literary capabilities of a
    person, but many times it also affects the mental, emotional, physical and
    even spiritual aspects of your life. Sometimes, talking from my particular
    experience, it even takes all motivation away. You become a zombie focused
    only on determining why you can't write and pained by the wonderful
    opportunities that you are missing to record the past for the future to see.
    It's a real painful experience. Anyone who goes through a writer's block
    will, in most cases, not be the same when (maybe even if) they recover.

    It seems to be a trend... a popular trend that makes everybody go crazy
    (although I'm wondering if prior crazy people go sane during writer's
    blocks). There are many different opinions, many different proposed ways on
    how to deal; the main objective, it is safe to say, is to go back to the way
    things were... when writing was easy.

    *What is Writer's Block?
    *Why do I have a writer's block? (I.E.- When did it start? What caused it?)
    *How do I get over my writer's block? (Some Do's and Don'ts)
    *How long will it last? Is this permanent?
    *Is it only me, or is it common?

    1. What is Writer's Block?

    Webster's Dictionary says: "an inability to write"

    Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary says: "a psychological inhibition
    preventing a writer from proceeding with a piece"

    The American Heritage Dictionary says: A usually temporary psychological
    inability to begin or continue work on a piece of writing.

    My personal definition of writer's block is: The inability to smoothly or
    easily produce self-satisfactory works of literary origins (i.e. prose or
    poetry.)

    To many people, literature in general is a large part of their life. I know
    that poetry, to me, is as functional in my body is my legs are... it is just
    another limb. To go through a writer's block is as if someone amputated some
    physical aspect of you... except in this case it is an emotional aspect of
    your body. Writer's block not only affects the literary capabilities of a
    person, but many times it also affects the mental, emotional, physical and
    even spiritual aspects of your life. Sometimes, talking from my particular
    experience, it even takes all motivation away. You become a zombie focused
    only on determining why you can't write and pained by the wonderful
    opportunities that you are missing to record the past for the future to see.
    It's a real painful experience. Anyone who goes through a writer's block
    will, in most cases, not be the same when (maybe even if) they recover.

    2. Why Do I Have Writer's Block?
    It is important to ask yourself, and to figure out, when your writer's block
    (even a vague idea is helpful) began. If you know when it began, and the
    events that took place prior to it, then you most likely can have a vague
    understanding of what may or may not have caused your writer's block. For
    me, my writer's block was caused by a prolonged depression that I still need
    to kick out of my system. This started at a very young age, and it is very
    difficult to have a complete understanding of the basics of this depression,
    and what exactly caused my writer's block. But for some people, all it takes
    is to have an event such as the loss of a friend or a loved one (death OR
    separation) to trigger a writer's block. The loss of a pet, or even smaller
    things, can trigger that. In most cases, it is an event that is followed by
    a sustained period of grieving that trigger's writer's block.

    3. How Long Will it Last? Is it Permanent?
    In my opinion, there are three simple stages of writer's block: minor,
    major, and periodic. Believe it or not, the worst is NOT major, but
    periodic. Let me describe these for you:

    *Minor Writer's Block
    Usually not a prolonged occurrence. You temporarily sense that lack of
    passion for writing. Although you never actually stop writing, you find that
    it has become more difficult to write or the words are not coming that
    easily. In many cases, this may be caused by minor depression, but sleep
    deprivation is also one of the main causes of this type of writer's block.
    Try sleeping early and waking late â?? with a notebook at hand, as always.

    *Major Writer's Block
    This is usually a longer period, and you find, very much the same as in
    minor writer's block, that you cannot write, or write as easily, as you once
    could. In this case, you most likely have trouble writing at all, and this
    is caused by a mixture of many different things: Pressure, sleep
    deprivation, depression, trauma, etc... It takes much longer to get over
    this writer's block than it does to get over a minor writer's block, and it
    helps to seek psychological help (or get medicine prescribed by a doctor)
    for anything that may be bothering you emotionally... especially if it's
    serious. If dealt with correctly, most likely this will fade... but
    sometimes, unless you are lucky, if dealt with incorrectly and stubbornly,
    you could just extend it and extend it so that it lasts longer than it
    should.

    *Periodic Writer's Block
    In my opinion, this is a very common, serious, complicated, and annoying
    type of writer's block. This type of writer's block can be caused by many
    things. First of all, it is caused the same way as minor and major writer's
    block bouts are caused. On top of those, Periodic Writer's Block can also be
    caused by the change of season, incorrectly dealing with major or minor
    writer's block, or, sometimes, nothing at all. Periodic writer's block is
    simply on and off writer's block. This, in my opinion, is the worse case of
    writer's block because often there is nothing at all you can do about it
    when it happens besides wait it out... and it's even worse because it comes
    back every so often and then leaves. It is possible, and likely, that you
    will get over this period of writer's block, but sometimes it's difficult to
    pull through... and stubbornness does not help either.

    You can get through your writer's block with flying colors. Just try to get
    through it on a positive note and it won't be permanent. If you push
    yourself to write you will just keep on pushing the end of your writer's
    block farther and farther from view. You decide when your writer's block
    ends, depending on how you deal with it.

    4. How Do I Get Over My Writer's Block? (Some Do's and Don'ts)

    *Don't Force Your Writing.
    Particularly when you are going through periods of writer's block, you
    shouldn't try to force yourself to write in a particular style or on a
    particular topic that you don't usually write in or on. It's mentally
    exhausting, sometimes pushing you farther away from any hope for recovery
    from the writer's block period.

    *Do Hang Around People... Get Active.
    For some reason, it seems being around nature, being around people... doing
    adventurous things... it seems to jog the "Oomph" back into your head. Go on
    nature trails, go on hikes, and get in fresh air... Sit by a lake and just
    take a nap. Make sure you are caught up on sleep. Make sure that you just do
    whatever you can to be outside. Key Words: HAVE FUN!

    *Do Seek Psychological Help (or just get medicine)
    Many times, writer's block is caused by a serious or tedious... even
    extensive period of depression. Not only will anti-depressants help you to
    focus more in life, and help you emotionally, physically, mentally, and
    spiritually... but it will also help your writing to get back in the loop.
    And don't worry, you people who write depressing poetry and dark poetry.
    Anti-depressants won't make you write poetry about things such as "Life is
    Beautiful" or "Squirrels are our Friends".... anti-depressants are supposed
    to ease the emotional pain, not make you artificially happy. Sometimes,
    psychologists can help you get through these stages of extreme depression.
    Maybe both...

    *Do Listen
    Not only can this help you get through a writer's block, but it can also
    help to improve your writing in general. Listen to people talk, give them
    advice. Trust me, nothing feels better than listening to someone's problems,
    giving them advice, and hearing them say... "Wow... never thought of it that
    way." Listening to other people doesn't mean simply hearing them speak, it
    means you actually show interest in what someone else has to say, and being
    able to follow-up what they have to say with something helpful, not
    degrading. This will help you get friends... people like people who listen.

    *Don't MOPE!
    Don't look at writer's block as an evil entity that is attacking every inch
    of your life, look at it as a break, even a blessing. Writer's block is
    basically telling you to step away from the pen and paper and to take a
    little time off and do something constructive. Believe it or not, we all DO
    need vacations from our hobbies at one point in time. Writer's block is just
    an all-expense paid invitation for a vacation. If you reject the invitation
    and fight through the time period where you'd be on vacation, trying
    stubbornly to write... you'll be less enthused about writing as time
    progresses.

    *Do Make Use of Music and Lyrics
    Sometimes, music is a great medicine to get over writer's blocks. While
    you're in a writer's Block, unless you have some other means of venting, you
    are keeping all your emotions inside of you. That means, it's important to
    find a means of venting. A great way to do this is by listening to music
    that relates to the emotions that you are feeling. Sometimes, if a song is
    so inspirational to you, then rewrite it on paper by memory and pretend (to
    yourself, of course) that it's your own. Be proud of it. (don't post it
    online... that would be plagiarism.) Don't go showing it off. On another
    thought, sometimes it even helps to write your favorite songs, from memory,
    on paper more than once. Soak each word in while you're writing it.

    *Do Watch Movies and Read Books
    There is nothing better than watching a movie that you love with your whole
    heart for the millionth time. Many times, movies will temporarily make your
    writing senses come back full throttle... it's up to you to seize the moment
    and write, write, write during that writing revelation. This also works with
    reading books

    *Don't Read Poetry
    This suggestion may strike many people as odd, but the worst thing you can
    do (other than trying to write) is to read poetry. Writer's Block is meant
    for you to take a vacation from writing and do other productive things. This
    also means to take a vacation from reading poetry. Prose, such as books and
    short stories, are okay during a writer's block (even if it's prose you
    can't write)... but unless it is a wonderful poem, or inspirational, you
    will get tired from looking at the words, wishing you could write again. It
    is, once again, exhausting to read when you can't write. (Of course, this
    suggestion is most definitely up for debate.)

    5. Is it only me, or is it common?

    Writer's block is common. Pretty much anyone who writes maniacally or with
    passion will at one point or another in time deal with some sort of writer's
    block. Many famous authors nowadays deal with writer's block. Even J.K.
    Rowling publicized her writer's block, stating that she "could not find the
    words" to write on paper. It is a painful period, and I'm sure that many
    people will say the same, but just know that you are not alone at all.

    I hope that this article was helpful, and if you are going through a
    writer's block, I wish you luck trying to get through it. If something was
    or wasn't helpful, or if something was inaccurate, I ask you to please
    contact me via private message and state your complaint or problem with
    reasoning and civility. I will respond in due time.

    This article is based solely upon my own opinion.

    Thanks For Reading,
    ~Stephen White

    SORRY FOR THE SKIP A LINE PROBLEM.

    Thanks to ann for editing!

  • Viola
    10 years ago

    Wow. This is lots of information. I will definitely go through it bit by bit, because I think there's lots of room for improvement in my poetry. Thanks for letting me know about it Gary. =]

  • Ashleigh Skye
    10 years ago

    Thanx for describing that everyone it really helped

  • Viola
    10 years ago

    I just wanted to add my little speal on the importance of imagery in a poem. I don't know if this has been metioned or discussed yet, forgive me if it has, but I just think it's rather important.

    For me, one of the most (if not THE most) important things in a poem is to make the reader feel the emotion you, as a writer, felt while writing the piece.
    It's very important to pour your heart out or just transmit your feeling through the words and phrases used in your poetry. Imagery can most certainly help do this.
    Now when I say imagery I don't just mean describe the hills or the sunset--it's not necessarily a reference to nature or what you see..but I find it almost essential for a good poem to paint a picture in the reader's mind.
    Imagery can include symbolism (ie: using a dead rose as a symbol of death or sadness), or metaphors (ie: her smile is the sunshine that warms my soul. In this case the reader can imagine the warmth of the sun and compare that to the smile of the girl being talked about, therefore getting a better sense of how the writer sees this woman through his eyes.)
    I think when things are being said in a subtle or 'between the lines' type of way it makes the poem more interesting and beautiful.
    A straight-forwardness like this:

    "I start to feel better
    and move on with my life"

    does not work as well as perhaps something like this would:

    "The tender butterfly lifts her wings
    and begins to fly freely
    In a world full of hope"

    The reader can then interpret those lines, and come to the same meaning as the first way of saying it..but it's more discriptive and beautiful.

    In conclusion, I just wanted to state that imagery in a poem makes it that much better-- it adds emotion in a deeper sense, desplays a creative way of expressing the same topic, and just makes the poem more beautiful.
    So try to use it in all your pieces.

    --Viola

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    FOR THOSE POET'S INTERESTED IN GETTING PUBLISHED:

    Below are some website addresses for listings of poetry markets, poetry e-zines and other poetry related sites. There are also more specific listings of both paper printed literary magazines and poetry e-zines under Notes On Writing Poetry at http://www.poems-and-quotes.com/discussion/topic.html?topic_id=56674 (there is a detailed posting though you may have to hunt through the other postings to find it). If any members can add any information/sites regarding information on getting published in poetry e-zines(including e-zine sites or sites listing poetry e-zines), publishing poetry chapbooks or poetry books or poetry e-books, and any other info/sites regarding poetry publication,
    please add it to this thread. Thanks.

    http://www.thepoetrymarket.com/

    http://www.pw.org/mag/ezines.htm

    http://www.poetrykit.org/ezines.htm

    http://www.poetrymagic.co.uk/ezines.html

    http://www.everypoet.net/links/

    http://www.textetc.com/resources/poetry-online.html

    http://www.geocities.com/coloradopoets/ezines.html

    http://www.google.com/Top/Arts/Writers_Resources/Poetry/

    http://www.poetrysuperhighway.com/

    http://www.thewritingbridge.org/

    http://www.poetry-portal.com/poetry.html

    http://www.everypoet.com/poetry/links_ezines.htm

    http://www.fglaysher.com/LitLinks.htm

    http://www.pw.org/

    http://www.writerswrite.com/poetry/

    http://www.publishing-explained.com/ezines-poetry.html

    http://www.writing.com/?rfrc=ezines.com

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    POETRY WRITING EXERCISES

    Here are some poetry exercises, some are my own, some are taken from books on writing poetry, some from websites. These exercises can be done just for the practice, or for fun, or to challenge yourself. They can also be very effective at breaking writer's block.

    I will add more exercises to these, but would also appreciate other P&Q members posting their own exercises or others they've run across that are not listed here.Your contributions are greatly appreciated.

    This is meant as something myself and other members can return to time and again for the reasons stated above.

    Peace, poetry & Power,

    Gary Jurechka
    __________________________________

    POETRY WRITING EXERCISES

    ****************************

    Get the Poetry Party Started: Ten Easy Exercises

    Poets and writers engage in writing exercises for individual reasons that are as varied as individual personalities. Whether stretching new creative muscles, battling writerâ??s block, or frolicking with words for fun, writing exercises are a proven method for catapulting an author to previously unexplored vistas of the mind.

    Although the exercises in this article are designed for the poet, many are adaptable toward many types of prose writing. They are provided for use with discretion, as these exercises work. Authors are advised and duly warned that inspiration will flash, and that writing will improve with continuous use.

    1) An exercise may begin by picking up almost any book or magazine. Circle between ten and twenty words on any interesting page. These words are the word bank used to construct a poem.

    2) Keeping the vital notebook and pen beside your bed at night may allow enough memory of dreams to linger long enough through the morning to jot down impressions. Write a poem about a recent dream envisioned while sleeping, the more odd the dream, the better.

    3) Choose a magazine photo and pick a short form poem. Haiku and cinquain work well for this exercise. The photo is the springboard, and imagination may carry the poem to places that surprise the poet when incorporating the use of a photo into a strict form poem.

    4) Use a hand held recorder, or ask someone to write for you. Close your eyes and breathe deeply until your mind is calm. Start speaking as soon as words, images, and sensations hit your brain. Transpose to paper afterward if recording. Take at least a ten or fifteen minute break, then return to see if you have a poem or an idea for one.

    5) The next poem may be as close as your next jaunt to a public place if the simple tools of a pen and notebook are in your hands. Parks, malls, grocery or video stores, and public theaters are great places for the somewhat addictive pastime of people-watching. While watching people, do you catch their eyes? Are you able to see beyond physical appearances to imagine what he thinks and feels right now? Imagine a life for this person. Where does he live? Does someone exhibit strange mannerisms or tones of speech? What animal does he remind you of? Take copious notes. Later, write a poem about one person or about the place and all the people and impressions you experienced.

    6) Listen with closed eyes to a song without words. How does it make you feel? Think of all five senses and imagine a connection to this song through the five senses? What beautiful (or horrible) thing do you see within the sound of this song? What do you taste? Smell? Play the song again with these notes and perhaps you have a poem.

    7) Spend an hour with family photos. Write about a particular family member or a tribute poem to the whole family. Or write a poem for your own funeral (which hopefully will happen someday far far into the future).

    8) Think of ten or twelve of your favorite things in life or ten things you love or hate about someone or something. Use your list to compose a poem.

    9) Considering the past year, what was the most exciting thing that happened to you? Compose a poem about this experience.

    10) Think of other â??mostâ?? phrases. What was the most disturbing thing that happened to you this year? The most rewarding? The most encouraging? Extending â??mostâ?? phrases to include a lifetime, the poetry begins on a different dimension.

    Some of the work composed from exercises may be unusable, but thatâ??s okay. Exercises are designed to broaden creativity. Allowing that inner poet to enjoy poetry through the games of word play refreshes the mind while relieving the pressure of performance. But itâ??s possible to pen some of the best work while engaging in such frivolous writing exercises. Most poets eventually develop their own exercises specifically designed to flavor their own unique approaches to poetry.

    Most experienced poets and authors agree that anything in this life has the capacity to become a source of inspiration. Virginia Wolfe once wrote a short story inspired from a spot on her bedroom wall. With the raw materials of an open mind and a playful heart, these simple exercises will at least get the party started either privately or with friends.

    _________________________________
    Other poetry exercises:

    STREAM OF CONSCIOUSNESS- I really love this exercise. Get a couple sheets of paper and set a fixed amount of time to write, usually ten or fifteen minutes is good for this (it may help to set a timer). You can do this in silence or with some background noise/music (instrumental is prefered) and if the tv is on either turn it off or turn the volume off (I mention music and tv as these both crept into the stream of consciousness poem I wrote (and was later published) that I mention later in this exercise description). Now pick up a pen and write (this could probably work on a computer, but I don't think it would be as effective), just write. Don't stop to think about what you are writing or what you have just written. Just write as things pop into you mind. It don't matter if the things make sense or are consistent, just write without pausing, without stopping the pen. Sometimes things going on around you at the moment may intrude, sometimes a long fargotten memory may appear. Write it down from margin to margin, don't write in poetic lines. When the time is up or you have a full page or two, stop. Look over what you have written. Circle or recopy any parts that interest you. Re-arrange these into lines of a poem. You may add a little bit if absolutely necessarry, but try not to. You may be able to string the lines together in a coherent poem or it may be an abstract piece. For a good example of this check out my own poem using this exercise called 'Reflections From The Living Room Floor' at http://www.poems-and-quotes.com/life/poems.php?id=501120 (I won't analyze it here, but you should be able to get the basic idea of how it came about).

    here is another poet's take on the above exercise:
    Free Writing

    The exercise goes like this: You set your timer for fifteen minutes. Then you start free writing. It is considered better if you turn down the contrast on you screen so you can't see what you have written. It is considered obligatory to switch the subject if you find yourself writing a story or getting on your soap box. The idea is to get down into that level of your mind that nestles between the conscious and the dreaming mind. In theory it cannot write a cliché. (Want to bet? Mine writes in iambic pentameter and nothing but clichés.) When the timer rings, or maybe the next day, you sift through all the stuff you have written, pick out the lines that interest you and you will find that you have a theme. In theory the idea your sub conscious would like to bring to your attention. If nothing else it would be a good exercise in looking at each single line.
    ______________________________________

    LINE/TITLE POEM-Take a line or title from one of your already completed poems (usually the title or the first or last line works best, but any line will do) and construct a new poem from it.

    ___________________________

    LUNE-a 3 line poem using a word count and not syllables(as opposed to the oriental forms). The word count is 3, 5, 3 (which makes the poem physically resemble it's name-the French word for moon).

    LANTERN- a 5 line poem using a word count (again-not syllable count) of 1, 3, 5, 3, 1. Like the Lune, the form it takes on the page resembles the object it is named for. This form and the lune can also be considered what is known as concrete poetry (poetry in the shape of the subject of the poem, like a tree shape, etc.)
    _______________________________

    CITY NAME poem-use the names of various cities or towns to create a poem. Use descriptive names like South Bend, Buffalo, Salt Lake, etc.
    _________________________________

    Foregn language poem abstract translation

    This may seem difficult, but it's actually fun. The purpose is to let yourself make sound associations. Take a poem in a language you don't know at all and "translate" it simply by making up a version from the way the poem sounds to you. Stick to the stanza form as it is in the original. Listen carefully to each word; what does it "say" to you? For example, sangre de pato: sand grates the patio, song of the parrot, some day in the ghetto, the angry potato; kindheit: kind heart, kind heights, Clondike.

    Thoughts - This might be hard with Romance languages for me. I'd tend to take the bit of French and Latin I know and try to "translate" based on the meaning of roots and not sound as the exercise suggests. A good way to find a poem to translate is to do a Google advanced search on the keyword "poetry" and pick a language.

    ___________________________________

    Exercise : Poem from a Photograph

    Choose a photograph that holds emotional significance for you. It might be the only school photo that you have of yourself; perhaps, a photo of your mother taken when she was young and glamorous. Your readers will not see what you see, so render the details with clarity. Let the reader know through the details you choose, the emotional significance of the photograph.

    ___________________________
    Creative Exercises to Get the Juices Flowing

    Stuck in a poetâ??s rut? Try these simple exercises to help get your creative juices flowing once more! This series of creativity exercises for poets and writers focuses on ways to help you observe the world around you with new eyes. Hopefully these exercises will help you express your thoughts and feelings more clearly by refocusing the way you express your physical impressions and feelings.

    Become aware
    Concentrate on every feeling your body is experiencing. The pressure of the chair beneath you, the feeling of the carpet fibers, the texture and resistance of the keyboard keys. . . . Concentrate on each individual feeling, allowing yourself to explore it. How long has it been since you noticed the pressure of your wrists on your keyboard or the thrill that pressing a pen to paper sends through your fingers.

    Write down every word and phrase that comes to you to describe these sensations, without trying to make sense of them all or organize them or even write in complete sentences. You could give this sense poem a descriptive title like â??Seated at My Computerâ?? or something less descriptive like â??Writing.â??

    _________________________________

    Experience something new
    Try a new food. Try to identify as many different textures, smells, flavors, components or ingredients in the meal. Better yet, try a simple new food, like an exotic fruit youâ??ve never had before. Try to describe the food and the experience to someone whoâ??s never eaten that food before. Determine which color is the most vibrant in the fruit or dish and find an appropriate name for that colorâ??if itâ??s red, is it vermilion, scarlet or crimson?
    ______________________________________

    Visit a craft store. Explore each department thoroughly, experiencing the textures and smells of the unfinished woodworks, the scrapbooking papers and cardstocks, the clays, the yarns.

    __________________________________

    Play games
    Play word games by yourself or with friends. Keep a dictionary handy and take this opportunity to learn new words (I learned quay, zax and qat this way, for example). Let the new words roll off your tongue. Without knowing what they mean, write a definition of them (or just play Balderdash). Also record your impressions of the word and its connotations and try to identify what about that word makes you feel that wayâ??its sounds, its resemblance to another word, or something else entirely?
    _______________________________

    Focus on Metaphor

    Definition of Terms:

    Metaphor:
    Language used imaginatively to carry ideas and feelings that otherwise might be difficult to put into words. A metaphor is a brief, compressed comparison that talks about one thing as if it were another. The comparison is implied. It comes to the poem unannounced, without the words like or as to signal that something is not literal.
    Introduction to Metaphor:
    Poets use striking imaginative comparisons to go beyond the resources of literal speech. They take us into a world of intense images, but often there is more to the image than what is apparent on the surface. When a poet says, "The bird of love is on the wing," the line is meant to call up a vivid image before the mind"s eye. But the poem is not literally talking about a bird. Instead, it compares the feeling of falling in love to the exhilaration a bird might experience in flight.

    Personification:
    Figurative language that endows something nonhuman with human qualities, as in "the tree whispered through the wind."

    Extended or Sustained Metaphor:
    A metaphor traced throughout a work. This follows the ramifications of the implied comparison, following up related similarities.

    Controlling Metaphor:
    When a single metaphor gives shape to a poem as a whole.

    Conceits:
    Fanciful extended metaphors. Elaborately developed, they often move along conventional or predictable lines.

    Cliché:
    A phrase which has lost its freshness due to overuse: tip of the iceberg, the bottom of the barrel, window of opportunity, hard as nails etc.

    Figurative Language:
    Metaphor is one kind of nonliteral language under the larger blanket of figurative language: language which means more than is what literally stated. Additional subcategories for figurative language are:

    Metonymy:
    a metaphor that does not rove far afield but lights on something closely related.

    Synecdoche:
    uses the part to stand for the whole: "give us a hand" (you actually need the whole person). Or the whole may be used to stand for only the part. "Mankind was forever altered today, when the President died." Actually, not all of mankind was altered.

    Metaphor Exercise:
    Basic:
    Choose a color, write a 15-20 line poem, where the name of the color is often repeated. Begin by listing the images associated with that color, then consider the narrative and associative possibilities. Consider as you write the broader, symbolic associations of the color chosen. Also consider the personal associations that color has for you. Incorporate the color in the title is you can. Try to refrain from using "like" or "as" in this piece.
    Advanced:
    A. Describe an object or scene that really interests you without making any comparisons of one thing to another. Re-write it, if necessary, until it is as free of comparisons as possible.
    B. Take the same object or scene and use it to describe a close family member, parent, sister, brother...In other words, indulge yourself in comparisons.

    C. Write a poem(any form, 15-25 lines) which, though it is a description of the object or scene above, is really about your family member. Do not use like or as in this piece.

    This exercise will help you to expand your use of language in reference to building comparisons, challenging you to see known things in new ways, and to communicate that new experience to your readers.

    Simile:

    Similar to metaphor, a brief , compressed imaginative comparison. Unlike the metaphor, a simile uses the words "like" "as" or "as if" to advertise that a comparison will follow.

    Simile Exercises:

    Finish The Sentence:
    Fill in the blanks as rapidly as you can. Do not think. Write. If you have no reflex response, go on to the next sentence. Stop writing when you slow down.

    1. A bird sitting in an old man's beard is like _________________

    2. The sails on the ship moved as if ________________________

    3. Everything was different, now that it was _________________

    4. A woman in __________ is like a __________ in _________

    5. Down is like up when ___________ is like _______________

    6. Hate is to a closed fist, as love is like ____________________

    7. A half empty glass is more like _________ than it is like ______

    8. Blank pages are as wasted as ____________________________________

    9. A man in ____________ is like a ______________ in _______

    10. Truth is as hard to obtain as _____________ and as easy to lose as _____

    Basic exercise:
    Circle the sentence you like the best, and use it as a central image in a 15-25 line poem, any form or style. This exercise focuses on the development of similes in your poetry.
    Advanced:
    Circle three of the sentences you like the most, and weave them together, creating a poem 15-25 lines long, any form any style. This exercise focus on the development of simile in your poetry.
    ________________________________

    Angel/Gargoyle exercise

    This exercise is done with pencil and paper. Perhaps one day we will have an interactive version that you can do right here on this page. For now, you will need a pen or pencil and paper.

    Part 1
    Take a piece of paper and fold it in half side to side so you have a long thin rectangle.

    On the one side you write a heading that says, Angel. On the other side you write Gargoyle.

    Spend ten minutes writing under the angel heading from the part of you that is an angel.

    Turn over the page and under the heading Gargoyle, write from the gargoyle aspect of your personality

    Part 2
    Now, unfold the paper. You are now looking at a page that is headed Angel . . . . Gargoyle.

    All your lines start out angel, and then become gargoyle.

    Edit and shape the material you have into a poem. Feel free to be wild and to augment liberally.
    _____________________________________

    Look Closely

    Go wandering around your house. Your yard, too, if you like. Or a park or wooded area, even a mall. If you are lucky enough to live by the sea, go down by the beach and wander along. Wherever it is you are wandering, look carefully at everything you see.

    Eventually something will call to you. We hope it is something small enough for you to pick up. A shell, say. A little flower. An interesting looking stick. An electronic circuit. Whatever.

    Take that thing in your hand and turn it. Smell it. Feel it. Then sit with it a while.

    Start making descriptive notes about it. It is small. In my hand it feels cool. It reminds me of something or someone. Write about that.

    After a while, you may find that you have made connection with something you had forgotten that you love, or something that happened that needs your love to heal it. Something that needs attention at any rate. That little item called out to you for some reason. There is something interesting about it. Find that out and you have a poem.

    _______________________________

    CAR NAME poem-use the names of cars (Jaguar, Saturn, Mustang, Gremlin, Charger, Equinox, Continental, Neon, Cougar, Sunbird, Barracuda, Rover, Firebird, Ranger, Intrepid, Cobra, Thunderbird, etc.) to create a poem.
    _________________________________________

    OVERHEARD poem-construct a poem from snippets of conversation (words, phrases, comments) you may have heard in a restaraunt or cafe, or at a party, or just in passing.
    _____________________________________

    Wrte a poem using alliteration. Write a poem using consanance. Write a poem using assonance.
    _______________________________________

    Poetry exercise sites;

    http://anitraweb.org/kalliope/archive.html

    http://www.eliteskills.com/poetry/poetry_exercises.php

    or google/search Poetry Exercises.

    ****************************

    And if you wish to try traditional or other forms of poetry, you can find the definitions of different poetry forms styles under these two topics/threads (you'll find not only poetry terms/definitions but also a wealth of information from many notable P&Q members):

    NOTES ON WRITING POETRY at http://www.poems-and-quotes.com/discussion/topic.html?topic_id=56674
    (although locked, it can still be accessed)

    and

    NOTES ON WRITING POETRY (Part II) at http://www.poems-and-quotes.com/discussion/topic.html?topic_id=86274.

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    A Note On Submitting Work For Publication To E-Zines And Printed Zines (and the markets in general)

    ***************************************
    Welcome to the world of literary small press and e-zine publications.

    This is for those who wish to branch out and see their work in print whether online or in traditional paper zines. This list will include both on line e-zines and also paper published ones. In the world of small presses as well as on the net, things can change overnight- zines cease publication, addresses change, editors change, sometimes submission guidelines change, new zines start up, etc. I will do my best to keep it up-dated. If anyone who contacts or submits to the small presses/e-zines and finds any change of information or extra info on any of these or discovers new or ones that aren't on this list, please e-mail me about it so I can keep this list current.
    Also, though we all write for many different reasons, trying to write with the idea of world wide fame and to make any money is not the goal here, if you start writing with that as your only goal or reason for writing, than you are not being true to yourself or poetry in general. Whether one gets published or not, we write because we must. While there is nothing wrong with getting paid or gaining popularity/recognition, these should not be your only reasons for writing. It is the passion to write that matters. It is a great feeling to get that first acceptance (and actually every one after) and even better when you see your name and poetry in print. This can bolster your confidence, vindicate your belief in your work and justify the time and effort put into writing, it can give great personal satisfaction on many levels. And it is good to build up some writing credits/publication history and also become somewhat established and known(build a reputation) in the e-zine and paper published literary world of both the small presses and hopefully the bigger more famous publications. And it always means something special when you can touch the hearts and minds of others through your poetry. But when it all comes down to it, the main and greatest thing, whether you submit for publication or not, whether you are ever published or not, is a secondary reason for writing , no, the most important thing will always be that you have the passion for writing burning deep and true inside you above anything else. Passion.

    Okay, a little info on the markets in general. Ideally the top markets (like POETRY MAGAZINE, THE NEW YORKER, etc.) are desired magazines to break into-these are high prestige and often well paying magazines. However competition is extremely fierce-the sheer volume of submissions the well known markets receive as opposed to how much poetry they actually use/publish is unbelievable. It is not impossible to get into these 'more desirable' markets, but it is very tough. Some of the college/university zines are open to all and these are also very hard to break into sometimes.Then there are the small presses-both e-zines and conventionally published magazines. These are no less important than the well known magazines and the college ones, some of the small press zines can be prestigious and some may even pay. A lot of times these are 1 or 2 person operations, some run by certain groups or a professionally staffed outfit, the paper published ones can be of varying quality, some are simple cut-and-paste affairs( the accepted work is compiled and glued to paper in a format of some kind then copied on a store or home copier or computer) and some are professionally printed with a nice glossy cover and higher quality paper. The paper published magazines are of all shapes and sizes and varying in the quality and look and also in the poetry they publish. The same is true as far as content and to a degree the appearance of the e-zines/web site zines.

    NOTES ON SUBMISSIONS

    Okay, though I've been away from the center stage of the poetry small presses the last couple of years, I have been extensively published in numerous zines and journals. I also was the editor/publisher of my own zine from roughly 1994-1999, so I consider myself a veteran of the markets in the small press world, having been on both sides. The following are things everyone should learn/know about submitting work. This is a rough guide to submitting your poetry for possible publication.
    The number one thing is: KNOW THE MARKETS.This is the main key to success. I can't stress this enough (you don't want to send a poem about your grandchild's first ice cream cone to a biker magazine and things like that-some magazines have theme/subject issues, some use only traditional verse, some only free verse, there are many variances as to what each particular publication is looking for and other details). Pick up a copy of THE POET'S MARKET put out each year by Writer's Digest Books. This book contains hundreds of markets with excellent information on what each magazine is looking for in the poetry they accept, contact information, payment(most of the small presses pay in copies of the magazine, or in the case of e-zines the opportunity of being on their site and the exposure and any prestige it may carry), also reply times, editor(s) name(s), for e-zines, whether to send the poems as attachments or in the email body itself,etc. They list both paper published zines and e-zines world wide(there may be other guides in other countries, but in the U.S Poet's Market is the bible for poets-from the beginner to the poet laureates). The best way to learn the markets is to study them or check them out. For the e-zines, go to their sites and see what kind of work they have displayed, for the paper zines, sample copies can usually be purchased. For both this gives you the opportunity to not only check out the publication and learn more details about it, but also allows you to read some of the work/poets in the small press world. Most sites and paper zines have submission guidelines in their content, if not, then a request for submission guidelines from the editor is advised.
    SUBMISSION GUIDELINES. These are vital. They will tell you what type of poetry that editor/publication is seeking, how many poems to submit at one time, response time to submissions, payment information, when or if they are accepting submissions, etc. Adhere to the guidelines. Each editor/zine is different. If a zine doesn't state how many poems to submit at once, 4-6 is a general rule. You don't want to send only 1 or 2, but you don't want to send a couple hundred. Five poems gives the editor a good idea and variety of your work to consider.
    If submitting to a paper zine, always send a self addressed stamped envelope(S.A.S.E.) with sufficient return postage to cover the return of your work and the editor's response. When submitting to magazines in other countries, send the addressed envelope along with enough I.R.C.'s(International Reply Coupons) for the return.
    Usually the guidelines will state a response time.Be forewarned; response time can be months, publication of the piece may be a year away. Most zines have a large backlog of submissions.Be patient. If an editor hasn't responded in the time stated in their guidelines (or if no response time is given 3 months is a fair wait), then send a breif curteous inquiry as to the status of your submission. Don't hound an editor, if anything it will prejudice him/her against your work no matter how good it is. Remember, a lot of these zines are small operations, many done in addition to the editor's 'real' job or other projects. Again, patience(to a reasonable extent) is the must here.
    When submitting, send a cover letter of some sort. This should be breif. Try to address it to the specific editor's name, if the editor's name is not known than 'Dear Editor', is okay to use. State that you are submitting your work for publication consideration and also some breif biographical information(don't go into your life story) and a list of writing credits (this is usualy the listing of any zine publications, contests or awards won, etc. Again if you have been extensively published, only mention the more prestigious credits. If you are just starting out, you can either state that of just skip listing the writing credits until you do acquire some. Always thank the editor for his/her time. If you would like more specific info on cover letters, feel free to contact me.
    Be prepared for rejection. If you are too sensitive about rejection, you may want to hold off until it won't bother you so much. A rejection is not a reflection on you as a person, and not always a statement about your work. There are many reasons for rejection: the zine/editor may have too much of a backlog, he may be having a bad day, the material may not be what the zine is seeking, and a thousand other reasons. Sometimes the rejection may include mention of why it was rejected, more often due to time and the immense amount of submissions, most zines use a form rejection-a standard generic decline of your work. Sometimes an editor may ask for changes in a piece. This is up to you. See if the editor has a legitimate point. If the change makes the piece better and you agree with it, make the change. However, if you think the editor is full of it and the request for revising the piece unwarranted, then stand firm and decline to make the change. But always listen with an open mind. Your words are not sacred and set in stone, you must become your own editor as a writer, which means to be open to change, at the same time, don't change something you think is fine just to get published or to please an editor.You will eventually realize when to revise something to make it stronger and when to refuse because you believe in the piece as it is. Every editor has different likes and preferences. And these are only the opinions of one zine or person. As you grow as a writer or become better at revising, your work will reflect this and the rejections will become fewer and the acceptances more. Bottom line: Never take a rejection personally. And don't get discouraged.Try again elsewhere.
    Simultaneous submissions or previously published poems. Some zines will accept 'simultaneous submissions'(sending the same poem out at the same time to a few different publications and previously published work(exactly that-something that has already been published elsewhere), many will not. If you do send out simultaneous submissions, if the piece is accepted by one, then the other editors should be contacted and informed.
    Most zines/editors do not like or accept rhyming work. While popular on many of the less discriminating post anything sites, most editors will not touch it. There are always exceptions however, some zines use only rhyme or traditional pieces. If you are going to write/submit rhyming work that it had better be exceptional. Rhyme is considered the basic ameteur's starting point by many writers/poets/editors, and most rhymes are so cliched. If you can write traditional forms/rhyming work well, than give it a try. But be fresh and original, most rhyming stuff has been done to death. Again, there are always exceptions.
    Send only your best work. Be professional. While waiting to hear back on a submission, don't stop everything else, keep writing, check out new markets, etc.

    THE POETRY MARKETS

    These are both e-zines and paper published zines. I will try to provide website addresses when available, if not listed and only a regular postal address is given, this means that it is a paper zine that you have to use the postal system when submitting (that or I don't have the web address yet!). Some paper published zines will take email submissions, just as some e-zines will accept regular mail submissions. This list will include zines in many different areas/countries.Good luck!

    Gary Jurechka

  • Gary Jurechka
    10 years ago

    THE POETRY MARKETS (E-Zines And Printed Zines)

    (Note: Be sure to read the previous post before submitting)
    _______________________________

    This is a partial listing of both e-zines and paper published zines. I will try to provide website addresses when available, if not listed and only a regular postal address is given, this means that it is a paper zine that you have to use the postal system when submitting (that or I don't have the web address yet!). Some paper published zines will take email submissions, just as some e-zines will accept regular mail submissions. Bear in mind these publications all differ greatly in what they will accept, they range from zines who only accept established authors or absolutely top of the line work to zines who accept less established(newcomers) poets- so submit accordingly. Try the elite zines, but more realistically get established in the lesser known, more open zines (check the submission guidelines and some of the poetry they have published to decide which magazines/e-zines your work would have a better chance of being accepted in, you can always work your way up). Again, be sure to check out guidelines before submitting! This list will include zines in many different areas/countries.Good luck!

    ***************

    ABALONE MOON
    http://www.abalonemoon.com/

    THE ABSINTHE LITERARY REVIEW
    http://www.absinthe-literary-review.com/

    ALPHA-BEAT PRESS
    Dave and Ana Christy
    31 A Waterloo Street
    New Hope, PA. 18938 USA

    ALTERNATIVE HARMONIES/New Dawn Unlimited
    Jerri and Kirk Hardesty
    1830 Marvel Road
    Brierfield, Alabama 35035
    USA

    ARABESQUE REVIEW
    L'editeur / Arabesques Press & Communications
    BP 75, Ctr Tri Chlef
    CHLEF 02000 / ALGERIA
    http://www.arabesquespress.org/

    AUGHT
    Ron Henry, Editor
    http://www.geocities.com/SoHo/8789/aught.htm

    BABEL
    Malcom Lawrence, Editor
    www.towerofbabel.com

    BARBARIC YAWP/BONEWORLD PUBLISHING
    John and Nancy Berbrich, editor/publishers
    3700 County Route 24
    Russell, New York 13684 USA

    BEAT THEIF
    Scooter Jonez
    www.beatthief.com

    BLACKBIRD
    Blackbird
    Virginia Commonwealth University Department of English
    PO Box 843082
    Richmond, VA 23284-3082
    http://www.blackbird.vcu.edu/

    BLUE COLLAR REVIEW
    Blue Collar Review
    P.O. Box 11417
    Norfolk, VA 23517
    http://www.angelfire.com/va/bcr/
    (No email submissions)

    BLUE HOUSE
    http://www.angelfire.com/journal/wordsareair/bluehouse25.html

    BLUE MOON
    Alan Michael Parker, Poetry Editor
    poetry@thebluemoon.com

    BLUE MOUNTAIN ARTS INC.
    Editorial Dept.
    P.O. Box 1007
    Boulder, Colorado 80306 USA
    www.bluemountainarts.com

    BORDERLANDS: TEXAS POETRY REVIEW
    Borderlands: Texas Poetry Review
    Attn: Editors
    PO Box 33096
    Austin, TX 78764
    http://www.borderlands.org/
    (No email submissions)

    BRICK
    Brick
    Box 537, Stn Q
    Toronto, ON M4T 2M5
    Canada
    http://www.brickmag.com/index.html
    (No email submissions)

    The CAFE REVIEW
    The Café Review
    c/o Yes Books
    589 Congress St
    Portland, ME 04101
    http://www.thecafereview.com/
    (No email submissions)

    CHAOTIC DREAMS ONLINE, A LITERARY E-ZINE
    http://gentlechaos.chaoticdreams.net/

    CHICAGO REVIEW
    Chicago Review
    5801 South Kenwood Avenue
    Chicago IL 60637
    http://humanities.uchicago.edu/orgs/review/masthead.shtml
    (No email submissions)

    CHIRON REVIEW
    Michael Hathaway
    702 N. Prairie Street
    St. John, Kansas 67576-1516
    USA

    COTYLEDON/CATAMOUNT PRESS
    Georgette Perry, editor
    2519 Roland Road SW
    Huntsville, Alabama 35805-4147 USA
    (uses poems ten lines or less(similiar to Lilliput Review)

    THE CRACKED MIRROR
    Goldie Jones
    P.O. Box 1096
    Dunkirk, New York 14048 USA

    DEEP CLEVELAND JUNKMAIL ORACLE
    deep cleveland junkmail oracle, a rather self-important literary e-zine
    P.O. Box 14248,
    Cleveland, Ohio 44114
    USA
    http://www.deepcleveland.com/dcjo.html

    De'Pressed Int'l
    http://www.depressed-intl.com/submissions.html

    Eclectica
    http://www.eclectica.org/

    4 AM
    http://fourampoetryreview.i8.com/

    Free Verse
    http://english.chass.ncsu.edu/freeverse/

    Fringe Magazine
    http://www.fringemagazine.org/

    FROGMORE PAPERS
    Jeremy Page, Poetry Editor
    18 Nevill Road
    Lewes, East Sussex
    BN7 1PF
    England
    www.frogmorepress.co.uk.

    GOLDEN APPLE PRESS
    Diane Henderson
    1701 Georgetown Drive
    Champaign, IL 61821 USA

    HAWKWIND LITERARY JOURNAL
    http://www.hawkwindcreations.com/

    HELIANTHUS
    P.O. Box 1511
    Pasadena, Texas 77501-1511 USA

    HERON QUARTERLY OF HAIKU AND ZEN POETRY
    Thinking Post Press
    17825 Bear Valley Lane
    Escandido, California 92027 USA

    IMPS IN THE INKWELL
    c/o Calamity Jewelz
    P.O. Box 6724
    Minneapolis, MN 55406 USA
    www.gleeful.com/hellespont

    LIGHT QUARTERLY OF LIGHT VERSE
    LIGHT
    The Editors
    PO Box 7500
    Chicago, Illinois 60680
    http://www.lightquarterly.com/
    (No email submissions)

    LILLIPUT REVIEW
    Don Wentworth, Editor
    282 Main Street
    Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
    15201-2807 U.S.A.
    http://donw714.tripod.com/lillieindex.html
    (Only uses poems that are 10 lines or less-this
    is a paper published zine)

    LIQUID OHIO
    Amber Goddard/ Michelle Leon editors
    P.O. Box 60265
    Bakersfield, California 93386-0265 USA

    THE MAD POET'S REVIEW
    c/o Eileen D'Angelo
    P.O. Box 1248
    Media, PA 19063-8348 USA

    MONKEY'S FIST
    Robin Merrill & Heidi Parker, editors
    425 West Mills Road
    Anson, MI
    04911-9735 USA

    MY FAVORITE BULLET
    Interior Noise Press
    P.O. Box 17863
    Austin, Texas
    78760 USA

    MUSE OF FIRE
    Tim Scannell
    21 Kruse Road
    Port Angeles, Wasington
    98362-9800 USA

    NANNY FANNY
    Lou Hertz, edtor
    2524 Stockbridge Drive #15
    Indianapolis, Indiana 46268-2670 USA

    NEW AMERICAN WRITING
    New American Writing
    369 Molino Avenue
    Mill Valley, CA 94941
    http://www.newamericanwriting.com/
    (No email submissions)

    NEW ENGLAND POETRY REVIEW
    New England Review
    Poetry Editor
    Middlebury College
    Middlebury, VT 05753
    http://cat.middlebury.edu/~nereview/index.html
    (No email submissions)

    PEN & INK
    Black Book Publishing, Inc.
    3/F Halili Building
    329 Katipunan Avenue
    Loyola Heights, Quezon City
    Philippines
    http://www.penandink.com.ph/cover.htm

    POETIC HOURS
    Nicholas Clark, Editor
    43 Willow Road
    Carlton, Nolts
    NG4 3BH
    England
    www.poetichours.homestead.com

    www.poetry.com

    POETRY LONDON
    Poetry London
    Maurice Riordan
    6 Daniels Road
    London SE15 3LR
    UK
    http://www.poetrylondon.co.uk/
    (No email submissions)

    POETRY SKY
    http://www.poetrysky.com/index.html

    POET'S FANTASY
    Gloria Stoeckel
    227 Hatten Avenue
    Rice Lake, Wisconsin 54868 USA

    THE POETS ROUNDTABLE(newsletter)
    Esther Alma
    826 South Center Street
    Terre Haute, Indiana 47807 USA

    PREMIERE GENERATION INK.
    Sachin Pandya, Poetry Editor
    P.O. Box 22056
    Madison, Wisconsin
    53701 USA
    www.premieregeneration.com

    PROSE AX
    Jhoanna Calma, Editor
    P.O. Box 22643
    Honolulu. Hawaii
    96823-2643 USA
    www.proseax.com

    PULSAR POETRY MAGAZINE
    Pulsar Poetry Magazine
    David Pike - Editor
    34 Lineacre, Grange Park
    Swindon, Wiltshire, SN5 6DA
    UK
    http://www.pulsarpoetry.com/

    THE RAINTOWN REVIEW
    Harvey Stanbrough
    P.O. Box 370
    Pittsboro, Indiana 46167 USA

    RAMBLE UNDERGROUND, Fiction & Poetry
    http://www.rambleunderground.org/

    RAVING DOVE, A Literary Journal
    http://www.ravingdove.org/

    SCORCHED EARTH PUBLISHING
    http://scorchedearthpublishing.com/

    SHADES OF DECEMBER
    c/o Alexander Danner(poetry editor)
    P.O. Box 244
    Selden, New York 11784 USA
    http://wwww2.fastdial.net-fc2983

    SHADOW POETRY
    http://www.shadowpoetry.com/

    www.slowtrains.com

    SMALL SPIRAL NOTEBOOK
    Small Spiral Notebook
    c/o Felicia Sullivan
    172 5th Avenue #104
    Brooklyn, NY 11217
    http://www.smallspiralnotebook.com/newsubmission.shtml
    (Note: publishes 2 versions-printed and
    online. Submit to only one at a time. Read guidelines.)

    SNOW MONKEY
    P.O. Box 127
    Edmonds, Washington
    98020-0127 U.S.A.
    or
    http://www.ravennapress.com/snowmonkey/pages/newworks.php

    SOUR GRAPES(newsletter)
    Sandy Bernstein
    26 Sheridan Street
    Woburn, MA. 01801-3542 USA

    SP QUILL/Shadow Poetry
    http://www.shadowpoetry.com/magazine/spquill.html

    SPUNK
    Violet Jones
    P.o. Box 55336
    Hayward, California 94545 USA

    STRIDE MAGAZINE
    Stride Magazine
    4b Tremayne Close
    Devoran, Cornwall TR3 6QE
    England
    http://www.stridemagazine.co.uk/

    SUBTLETEA
    David Herrle, Editor
    www.subtletea.com

    TAMAFYHR MOUNTAN POETRY
    Kenneth P. Gurney, Editor
    3710 North Oakland Ave. #203
    Shorewood Wisconsin
    53211 U.S.A.
    www.tmpoetry.com

    TATTOO HIGHWAY
    http://www.tattoohighway.org/

    3 CUP MORNING
    3 cup morning
    Gen O'Neil, Editor
    13865 Dillabough Road, R.R. #1
    Chesterville, ON
    KOC 1HO
    Canada
    http://3cupmorning.topcities.com

    THREE CANDLES
    THREE CANDLES
    Steve Mueske
    www.threecandles.org
    (E-zine)

    Thunder Sandwich
    http://www.thundersandwich.com/

    TURBINE
    Turbine Submissions
    IIML , Victoria University
    P O Box 600
    Wellington, New Zealand
    http://www.victoria.ac.nz/turbine/

    VALLUM
    Vallum
    P.O. Box 48003
    Montreal, Quebec
    H2V 4S8
    Canada
    http://www.vallummag.com/
    (No email submissions)

    WHITE LOTUS A Journal Of Short Asian Verse & Haiga/Shadow Poetry
    http://www.shadowpoetry.com/magazine/whitelotus.html

    WHY VANDALISM? Online Literary And Arts Journal
    http://www.whyvandalism.com/

    WILD PLUM
    Constance Campbell, Editor
    P.O. Box 49019
    Austin, Texas
    787765-90119 USA
    www.wildplumpoetry.com

    WILD VIOLET MAGAZINE
    Alyce Wilson, Editor

    Word Riot
    http://www.wordriot.org/

    ZAFUSY Contemporary Poetry Journal
    http://www.zafusy.com/

    www.zinos.com

    ***********************************************

    (NOTE: okay, this is the start of the markets/submissions section. The above information I'm sure will be added to or revised, as I know there's other things to mention or address. At any point you have any questions, concerns, or information, feel free to contact me. I just put up a couple markets (which I still need to add more information to them yet (there are so many, I haven't actually checked them all out), but it's a start. Check out the sites and see what type of stuff they use, guidelines,etc.). If anyone has any questions on the above stuff or has something to add, contact me. Again if anyone has other markets or listings, please add to this.

    Gary Jurechka